Skip to main content
Advanced Search

Filters: Tags: virology (X)

23 results (93ms)   

View Results as: JSON ATOM CSV
thumbnail
Quantitative real-time PCR has been used to measure fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus (FPTHV) pol DNA loads in fibropapillomas, fibromas, and uninvolved tissues of green, loggerhead, and olive ridley turtles from Hawaii, Florida, Costa Rica, Australia, Mexico, and the West Indies. The viral DNA loads from tumors obtained from terminal animals were relatively homogenous (range 2a??20 copies/cell), whereas DNA copy numbers from biopsied tumors and skin of otherwise healthy turtles displayed a wide variation (range 0.001a??170 copies/cell) and may reflect the stage of tumor development. FPTHV DNA loads in tumors were 2.5a??4.5 logs higher than in uninvolved skin from the same animal regardless of geographic...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Virology
thumbnail
The nature of the association between viral fitness and virulence remains elusive in vertebrate virus systems, partly due to a lack of in vivo experiments using statistically sufficient numbers of replicate hosts. We examined the relationship between virulence and fitness in Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), in vivo, in intact living rainbow trout. Trout were infected with a high or low virulence genotype of M genogroup IHNV, or a mixture of the two genotypes, so as to calculate relative fitness and the effect of a competition environment on fitness. Fitness was measured as total viral load in the host at time of peak viral density, quantified by genotype-specific quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Virology
thumbnail
The aquaculture industry is growing rapidly to meet the needs for global protein consumption. Viral diseases in aquaculture are quite challenging due to lack of treatment options as well as limited injection-delivery vaccines, which are costly. Thus, water-immersion antiviral treatments are highly desirable. This study focused on broad-spectrum, light-activated antivirals that target the viral membrane (envelope) of viruses to prevent viral-cell membrane fusion, ultimately blocking viral entry into cells. Of the tested small-molecules, JL122, a new broad-spectrum antiviral previously unexplored against aquatic viruses, blocked infection of three aquatic rhabdoviruses (IHNV, VHSV and SVCV) in cell culture and in...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Virology
thumbnail
Migration and population genetic data for northern pintails (Anas acuta) and phylogenetic analysis of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses from this host in Alaska suggest that northern pintails are involved in ongoing intercontinental transmission of avian influenza. Here, we further refine this conclusion through phylogenetic analyses which demonstrate that detection of foreign lineage gene segments is spatially dependent and consistent through time. Our results show detection of foreign lineage gene segments to be most likely at sample locations on the Alaska Peninsula and least likely along the Southern Alaska Coast. Asian lineages detected at four gene segments persisted across years, suggesting maintenance...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Virology
thumbnail
Samples were collected from wild birds in western Alaska to assess dispersal of influenza A viruses between East Asia and North America. Two isolates shared nearly identical nucleotide identity at eight genomic segments with H9N2 viruses isolated from China and South Korea providing evidence for intercontinental dispersal by migratory birds.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Virology
thumbnail
Data were collected as part of an investigation developed by Leetown Science Center to investigate the comparative detection of avian influenza viruses from waterfowl and potential environmental reservoirs such as aquatic sediment from waterfowl habitat. This dataset identifies positive or negative test results for qRT-PCR (quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction) for avian influenza virus through identification of the Type A influenza virus matrix gene from aquatic sediment samples. Sediment samples were collected from waterfowl habitat so as to determine if temporal and spatial differences in virus detection by qRT-PCR were evident among test sites.
thumbnail
A comprehensive dataset of NDV genome sequences was evaluated using bioinformatics to characterize the evolutionary forces affecting NDV genomes. Despite evidence of recombination in most genes, only one event in the fusion gene of genotype V viruses produced evolutionarily viable progenies. The codon-associated rate of change for the six NDV proteins revealed that the highest rate of change occurred at the fusion protein. All proteins were under strong purifying (negative) selection; the fusion protein displayed the highest number of amino acids under positive selection. Regardless of the phylogenetic grouping or the level of virulence, the cleavage site motif was highly conserved implying that mutations at this...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Virology
thumbnail
This dataset contains data tables of laboratory quality-control data associated with environmental samples analyzed for microbiological constituents at the Ohio Water Microbiology Laboratory of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The environmental samples were collected across the United States by USGS National Projects and projects in Water Science Centers. These quality-control data can be used to assess the quality of microbiological data for the associated environmental samples.
thumbnail
Following detections of highly pathogenic (HP) influenza A viruses (IAVs) in wild birds inhabiting East Asia after the turn of the millennium, the intensity of sampling of wild birds for IAVs increased throughout much of North America. The objectives for many research and surveillance efforts were directed towards detecting Eurasian origin HP IAVs and understanding the potential of such viruses to be maintained and dispersed by wild birds. In this review, we highlight five important lessons learned from research and surveillance directed at HP IAVs in wild birds inhabiting North America: (1) Wild birds may disperse IAVs between North America and adjacent regions via migration, (2) HP IAVs can be introduced to wild...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Virology
thumbnail
In 2010, a mass mortality of pufferfish in Hawaii was dominated by Arothron hispidus showing aberrant neurological behaviors. Using pathology, toxinology, and field surveys, we implicated a series of novel, polar, marine toxins as a likely cause of this mass mortality. Our findings are striking in that 1) a marine toxin was associated with a kill of a fish species that is, itself, toxic; 2) we provide a plausible mechanism to explain clinical signs of affected fish, and 3) this epizootic likely depleted puffer populations. Whilst our data are compelling, we did not synthesize the toxin de-novo, we were unable to categorically prove that the polar toxins caused mortality or that they were metabolites of an undefined...
thumbnail
The relationship between virulence and overall within-host fitness of the fish rhabdovirus Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) was empirically investigated in vivo for two virus isolates belonging to different IHNV genogroups that exhibit opposing host-specific virulence. U group isolates are more virulent in sockeye salmon and M group isolates are more virulent in rainbow trout. In both single and mixed infections in the two fish hosts, the more virulent IHNV type exhibited higher prevalence and higher viral load than the less virulent type. Thus, a positive correlation was observed between higher in vivo fitness and higher host-specific virulence in sockeye salmon and rainbow trout. Comparisons of mean...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Virology
thumbnail
Fibropapillomatosis (FP) of marine turtles is a neoplastic disease of ecological concern. A fibropapilloma-associated turtle herpesvirus (FPTHV) is consistently present, usually at loads exceeding one virus copy per tumor cell. DNA from an array of parasites of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) was examined with quantitative PCR (qPCR) to determine whether any carried viral loads are sufficient to implicate them as vectors for FPTHV. Marine leeches (Ozobranchus spp.) were found to carry high viral DNA loads; some samples approached 10 million copies per leech. Isopycnic sucrose density gradient/qPCR analysis confirmed that some of these copies were associated with particles of the density of enveloped viruses. The...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Virology
thumbnail
The files in this data release are the processed DNA consensus sequence alignment files for the chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV-5) genome plus 66 open reading frames representing protien-coding genes. DNA was extracted from tumor biopsies from green sea turtles (Chelonias mydas) with fibropapillomatosis sampled from Florida and Hawaii coastal waters. We used high-throughput short-read sequencing (Illumina MiSeq and Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine) of long-range PCR products amplified from tumor tissue using primers designed from the single available ChHV5 reference genome from a Hawaii green sea turtle. The raw sequence data is available at the NCBI Sequence Read Archive under bioproject number PRJNA360405, including...
Tags: Class Reptilia, DNA sequencing, Earth, Oceans, Atlantic, North Atlantic, Earth, Oceans, Pacific, Family Cheloniidae, All tags...
thumbnail
The type strain of satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV) contains two major variants, designated type 5 (T5) and type 6 (T6), which can be easily distinguished by RNase protection analyses. Clones containing cDNA of representative T5 and T6 STMV genomes have only five single-base differences in the entire 1059-nucleotide genome, and RNA transcribed from each clone is highly infectious when inoculated onto tobacco plants. The different RNase protection assay patterns can be used as genetic markers to identify individual STMV variants and to follow the interactions of variants and their progeny during coinfections in plants. The study described here investigated the effects of coinoculation and various delayed inoculations...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Virology
thumbnail
Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is an emerging pathogen from Africa that causes disease similar to smallpox. Two clades with different geographic distributions and virulence have been described. Here, we utilized bioinformatic tools to identify genomic regions in MPXV containing multiple virulence genes and explored their roles in pathogenicity; two selected regions were then deleted singularly or in combination. In vitro and in vivostudies indicated that these regions play a significant role in MPXV replication, tissue spread, and mortality in mice. Interestingly, while deletion of either region led to decreased virulence in mice, one region had no effect on in vitro replication. Deletion of both regions simultaneously...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Virology
thumbnail
Viral genotype displacement events are characterized by the replacement of a previously dominant virus genotype by a novel genotype of the same virus species in a given geographic region. We examine here the fitness of three pairs of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) genotypes involved in three major genotype displacement events in Washington state over the last 30 years to determine whether increased virus fitness correlates with displacement. Fitness was assessed using in vivo assays to measure viral replication in single infection, simultaneous co-infection, and sequential superinfection in the natural host, steelhead trout. In addition, virion stability of each genotype was measured in freshwater...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Virology


map background search result map search result map Intercontinental reassortment and genomic variation of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from northern pintails (<i>Anas acuta</i>) in Alaska: examining the evidence through space and time Viral fitness does not correlate with three genotype displacement events involving infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus Puffer Mortality Data Targeted amplicon resequencing of chelonid alphaherpesvirus 5 from tumor samples collected from Chelonia mydas (green turtle) inhabiting Hawaiian and Florida coastal waters Molecular detection of avian influenza virus from sediment samples in waterfowl habitats on the Delmarva Peninsula, USA Laboratory quality-control data associated with samples analyzed for microbiological constituents at the USGS Ohio Water Microbiology Laboratory Molecular detection of avian influenza virus from sediment samples in waterfowl habitats on the Delmarva Peninsula, USA Viral fitness does not correlate with three genotype displacement events involving infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus Puffer Mortality Data Targeted amplicon resequencing of chelonid alphaherpesvirus 5 from tumor samples collected from Chelonia mydas (green turtle) inhabiting Hawaiian and Florida coastal waters Laboratory quality-control data associated with samples analyzed for microbiological constituents at the USGS Ohio Water Microbiology Laboratory Intercontinental reassortment and genomic variation of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from northern pintails (<i>Anas acuta</i>) in Alaska: examining the evidence through space and time