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Our demands on natural systems outweigh the capacity of those systems to support us. This paper calls for an approach to development that consistently delivers ‘net benefit’ for biodiversity or ‘ecological enhancement’. Examples of enhancement are presented through four case studies in India undertaken between 2005 and 2010. Actions focus on improving the overall ecological structure, composition and functions of sites; strengthening ecological networks by creating new habitats and buffer areas; and improving the services provided by the ecosystems, without jeopardizing biodiversity. While recognizing the importance of quantitative metrics of impacts and mitigation measures to determine outcomes, such measures were...
Offshore exploration and production of oil and gas have increased significantly in the last decade. Computer models are used in emergency response, contingency planning, and impact assessment to simulate the behavior of oil and gas if accidentally released from a well, pipeline, or ship. There are two types of models used for this purpose-models that have both plume dynamics stage and the advection diffusion stage and models that are of simplified nature that has only the advection diffusion stage. This paper compares both types of models and shows what information are similar and what are different and under what conditions. The paper also examines in detail about different criteria that can be used as the transition...
This paper approximates the emissions rebound effects' associated with substituting expensive and GHG emitting natural gas (LNG) power plants, with apparently cheaper and lower emitting nuclear plant. It then evaluates the effect this has on economy wide electricity use as well as net GHG emissions changes. The analysis is undertaken by combining aspects of an input-output model with an optimizing energy systems model. The scope of the case study is limited to the effects of the electricity sector (and its emissions) on the Korean economy from 2005 to 2030. Its primary basis (in terms of data and assumptions) is the recent national Basic Plan for Long-Term Electricity Supply and Demand (KPX, 2006).(2) The cases...
For grading different types of renewable energy based electricity generation systems, a figure of merit has been proposed and evaluated. The figure of merit has been obtained by analyzing total energy utilization in constructing and installing the systems and by their respective electricity generation. The gross carbon emission has also been estimated for evaluation of figure of merit. This figure of merit clearly indicates that wind power is the most sustainable source for electricity generation, followed by small hydropower and solar photovoltaics.
Over the 1970s and 1980s, emissions of carbon dioxide from energy use fell in per capita, per unit GDP, and in some cases in absolute terms in 10 industrialized countries studied by LBNL. These declines were driven principally by falling end-use energy intensities and the decreasing carbon content of energy. By the early 1990s, however, a slowdown in the decline of intensities and the continued growth of GDP and energy services activity have reversed the trends in absolute emissions. LBNL concludes that CO2 emissions will continue to rise in the future unless energy intensities and/or the carbon content of energy can be decreased at an accelerated rate via policy changes, technological innovation and/or behavioural...
For grading different types of renewable energy based electricity generation systems, a figure of merit has been proposed and evaluated. The figure of merit has been obtained by analyzing total energy utilization in constructing and installing the systems and by their respective electricity generation. The gross carbon emission has also been estimated for evaluation of figure of merit. This figure of merit clearly indicates that wind power is the most sustainable source for electricity generation, followed by small hydropower and solar photovoltaics.
The 576 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the tenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the U.S. Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types—technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions—have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the U.S. Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities...
Bedded trona (Na2CO=-NaHCO=.214,0) in the lacustrine Green River Formation of Eocene age in the Green River Basin, southwest Wyomin~ constitutes the largest known resource of natural sodium carbonate in the world, in this study, 116 gigatons (Gt) of trona ore are estimated to be present in 22 beds, ranging from 1.2 to 11 meters (m) in thickness. Of this total, 69 Gt of trona ore are estimated to be in beds containing less than 2 percent halite and 47 Gt in beds containing 2 or more percent halite. These 22 beds underlie areas of about 130 to more than 2,000 km: at depths ranging from about 200 m to more than 900 m below the surface. The total resource of trona ore in the basin for which drilling Information is available...
Bedded trona (Na2CO=-NaHCO=.214,0) in the lacustrine Green River Formation of Eocene age in the Green River Basin, southwest Wyomin~ constitutes the largest known resource of natural sodium carbonate in the world, in this study, 116 gigatons (Gt) of trona ore are estimated to be present in 22 beds, ranging from 1.2 to 11 meters (m) in thickness. Of this total, 69 Gt of trona ore are estimated to be in beds containing less than 2 percent halite and 47 Gt in beds containing 2 or more percent halite. These 22 beds underlie areas of about 130 to more than 2,000 km: at depths ranging from about 200 m to more than 900 m below the surface. The total resource of trona ore in the basin for which drilling Information is available...
Over the 1970s and 1980s, emissions of carbon dioxide from energy use fell in per capita, per unit GDP, and in some cases in absolute terms in 10 industrialized countries studied by LBNL. These declines were driven principally by falling end-use energy intensities and the decreasing carbon content of energy. By the early 1990s, however, a slowdown in the decline of intensities and the continued growth of GDP and energy services activity have reversed the trends in absolute emissions. LBNL concludes that CO2 emissions will continue to rise in the future unless energy intensities and/or the carbon content of energy can be decreased at an accelerated rate via policy changes, technological innovation and/or behavioural...
Offshore exploration and production of oil and gas have increased significantly in the last decade. Computer models are used in emergency response, contingency planning, and impact assessment to simulate the behavior of oil and gas if accidentally released from a well, pipeline, or ship. There are two types of models used for this purpose-models that have both plume dynamics stage and the advection diffusion stage and models that are of simplified nature that has only the advection diffusion stage. This paper compares both types of models and shows what information are similar and what are different and under what conditions. The paper also examines in detail about different criteria that can be used as the transition...
Dumper operators are exposed to whole body vibration (WBV) in the course of their work. The exposure to WBV in a coal mine in Central India was investigated through measurement of the magnitude of vibration and exposure time. The vibration magnitude along the dominant Z-axis ranged from 0.644 to 1.82 m/s2 in terms of root mean square acceleration. When evaluated in conjunction with their average daily exposure time of 5 h, all dumpers caused elevated health risk for their operators according to guidelines in ISO 2631-1:1997 WBV standard. Health risks were re-affirmed when vibration dose value (VDV) was applied as an additional tool for risk assessment. Forty dumper operators and 20 controls from the same mine were...
Bedded trona (Na2CO=-NaHCO=.214,0) in the lacustrine Green River Formation of Eocene age in the Green River Basin, southwest Wyomin~ constitutes the largest known resource of natural sodium carbonate in the world, in this study, 116 gigatons (Gt) of trona ore are estimated to be present in 22 beds, ranging from 1.2 to 11 meters (m) in thickness. Of this total, 69 Gt of trona ore are estimated to be in beds containing less than 2 percent halite and 47 Gt in beds containing 2 or more percent halite. These 22 beds underlie areas of about 130 to more than 2,000 km: at depths ranging from about 200 m to more than 900 m below the surface. The total resource of trona ore in the basin for which drilling Information is available...
The main goal of the present study is to analyze some of the capabilities and behavior of two types of plug-in cars: battery electric and hydrogen fuel cell hybrid electric, facing different driving styles, different road gradients, different occupation rates, different electrical loads, and different battery's initial state of charge. In order to do that, four vehicles with different power/weight (kW/kg) ratio (0.044 to 0.150) were simulated in the software ADVISOR, which gives predictions of energy consumption, and behavior of vehicle’s power train components (including energy regeneration) along specified driving cycles. The required energy, electricity and/or hydrogen, to overcome the specified driving schedules,...
For grading different types of renewable energy based electricity generation systems, a figure of merit has been proposed and evaluated. The figure of merit has been obtained by analyzing total energy utilization in constructing and installing the systems and by their respective electricity generation. The gross carbon emission has also been estimated for evaluation of figure of merit. This figure of merit clearly indicates that wind power is the most sustainable source for electricity generation, followed by small hydropower and solar photovoltaics.