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Relative abundance of salt marsh habitat, by marine ecoregion. We compiled a global database on salt marshes in collaboration with UNEP-WCMC and with input from Paul Adam, University of New South Wales, Australia. In this database, habitat abundance was estimated using the array of point locations and GIS data holdings from this database and were broadly based on abundance as a proportion of the total coastline length in each ecoregion. Salt marshes were poorly covered in the literature for some parts of the Arctic coastline and from wide areas of the tropics where salt marshes were often overlooked or classified within mangrove areas. While efforts were made to target data searching for these regions, there may...
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Amount of fish and shellfish caught using bottom trawling and dredging (1955-2004), by marine ecoregion. The map shows trawling and dredging fishing pressure by marine ecoregion between 1955 and 2004, using fish and shellfish catch data from the University of British Columbia (SAUP 2007). Our analysis of the catch data was limited to species caught by bottom trawl or dredge gear (Watson et al. 2006a). We calculated the annual total tonnage of catch for all species caught by these gears in each ecoregion. To account for recovery of benthic systems over time, we applied a decay factor of 2 percent for each year before 2004 to the total catch (implying a full recovery in fifty years). We then calculated the cumulative...
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Number of seagrass species, by marine ecoregion. We extracted seagrasses from version 2.0 of the global polygon and point data set that was compiled by UNEP-WCMC in 2005 (for more information about the source data set, e-mail spatialanalysis@unep-wcmc.org). These same data were originally published in the World Atlas of Seagrasses (Green and Short 2003; see, in particular, the chapter by Spalding et al. 2003). The source data for the habitat map were a mix of point and polygon information gathered from a major literature review as well as from national-level mapping programs. We developed the species diversity map from range maps drawn for fifty-five species. The four species from the genus Ruppia were not mapped...
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Number of stony coral species, by marine ecoregion. Stony coral range maps have been drawn by Veron (2000), who kindly made available to us range maps for 794 species. We laid these range maps over the ecoregions to derive a species total for each ecoregion. Note that these stony corals have a wider range than coral reefs. The large physical structures of coral reefs only develop where such corals survive in sufficient densities (and usually diversity) over the long time scales it takes for such structures to form. These data were derived by The Nature Conservancy, and were displayed in a map published in The Atlas of Global Conservation (Hoekstra et al., University of California Press, 2010). More information...
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Proportion of coral bleaching events that were high impact, by marine ecoregion. Data on coral bleaching is derived from ReefBase and represents bleaching from a single year (1998). This was the worst bleaching event on record, linked to an El Niño year. It was also very well monitored, partly because of its unprecedented nature. Bleaching has remained widespread since that time in locations around the world. The data was generously provided by Jamie Oliver from a subset that was prepared for another publication (Oliver et al. 2008), and we have only made minor corrections to errors for the Seychelles in this data set. Bleaching reports in ReefBase were derived from a broad range of sources, but each has been assigned...
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Change in nitrogen flow to the coast since pre-industrial times, by marine ecoregion. The map shows the estimated change in coastal discharge of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) between preindustrial and contemporary times by marine ecoregion. We calculated this change using data from Green et al. (2005), which was developed using land surface runoff models that included agriculture, livestock, human sewage, and atmospheric deposition sources of DIN. The original spatial data set assigned discharge values to coastal pixels, and we summed the value of pixels within each ecoregion for each time period. We then calculated ecoregional values by subtracting preindustrial sums from contemporary values. These data...
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Number of globally threatened marine mammal species, by marine ecoregion. Using the online IUCN resource, the threatened species for each ecoregion were filtered for marine species only. Threatened species refer to those listed by IUCN Red List as Vulnerable, Endangered, or Critically Endangered (www.redlist.org). We downloaded the digital GIS data and summarized it by marine ecoregion to result in the number of threatened species per marine ecoregion. These data were derived by The Nature Conservancy, and were displayed in a map published in The Atlas of Global Conservation (Hoekstra et al., University of California Press, 2010). More information at http://nature.org/atlas. Data derived from: International Union...
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Number of seabird species, by marine ecoregion. Using the distribution maps for seabirds from Harrison (1983), we visually mapped each of the 312 seabirds to one or more marine ecoregions. Only breeding ranges (including breeding sites) were used; migration routes and casual or vagrant records were excluded. These data were derived by The Nature Conservancy, and were displayed in a map published in The Atlas of Global Conservation (Hoekstra et al., University of California Press, 2010). More information at http://nature.org/atlas. Data derived from: Harrison, P. 1983. Seabirds: An Identification Guide. London: Christopher Helm.
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Area of coral reefs (square kilometers), by marine ecoregion. We extracted coral reefs from version 7.0 of the global one-kilometer raster data set compiled by the UNEP-WCMC update of 2003 (for more information about the source data set, e-mail spatialanalysis@unep-wcmc.org), which is almost entirely identical to the data published in the World Atlas of Coral Reefs (Spalding et al. 2001). They represent a combination of line and polygon information converted to a one-kilometer grid to smooth data originally drawn at different scales. We made minor modifications to the global map, by removing reef areas from West Africa and the Leeuwin and Southern California Bight ecoregions. The latter represents erroneous data,...
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Relative abundance of kelp forest habitat, by marine province. We developed estimates of abundance of kelp forests. Originally we gathered this information at an ecoregional scale, but we decided to summarize to province due to concerns about fine-scale accuracy. Where information was not readily available, provinces were labeled “no data.” We used the following data sources: Robinson, A. R., and K. H. Brink, eds. 1998. The Global Coastal Ocean, Regional Studies and Syntheses. New York: Wiley. ———, eds. 2006. The Global Coastal Ocean: Interdisciplinary Regional Studies and Syntheses. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Sheppard, C., ed. 2000a. Seas at the Millennium: An Environmental Evaluation, Volume...
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Number of fisheries certified as “sustainable and well-managed” by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), by marine ecoregion. We obtained information on marine fisheries certified as sustainable and well managed by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC, www.msc.org) from the MSC Web site’s certified fisheries profiles. Individual fishery profiles described geographic fishing areas where each fishery operates. These areas tend to correspond to national fishing area designations. Using these designations and mapped information on the MSC Web site, we assigned certified fisheries manually and approximated as much as possible to marine ecoregional boundaries. These data were derived by The Nature Conservancy, and were...
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Relative abundance of seagrass habitat, by marine province. We extracted seagrasses from version 2.0 of the global polygon and point data set that was compiled by UNEP-WCMC in 2005 (for more information about the source data set, e-mail spatialanalysis@unep-wcmc.org). These same data were originally published in the World Atlas of Seagrasses (Green and Short 2003; see, in particular, the chapter by Spalding et al. 2003). The source data for the habitat map were a mix of point and polygon information gathered from a major literature review as well as from national-level mapping programs. The habitat distribution information was of varying consistency, with likely gaps in information-poor regions. It was not possible...
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Percent of marine ecoregion area formally protected. A global listing of 5,045 marine protected areas was developed by Spalding et al. (2008) using the World Database on Protected Areas (UNEP/IUCN 2008) and data from the related work undertaken at the University of British Columbia (Wood et al. 2008). These data were overlain on the map of marine ecoregions (shelf areas only) to derive total area coverage statistics. It is not currently possible to assess the effectiveness of MPAs at a global scale, so the map shows an optimistic assessment of area protected. Looking beyond shelf areas, Spalding et al. (2008) point out that only 1.91 percent of waters within exclusive economic zone areas, and 0.717 percent of the...
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Area of mangrove forest (square kilometers), by marine ecoregion. We extracted mangrove forest extents from version 3.0 of the global polygon data set compiled by UNEP-WCMC in collaboration with the International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems (ISME) 1997 (for more information about the source data set, e-mail spatialanalysis@unep-wcmc.org). These are almost entirely the same data that were published in the first World Mangrove Atlas (Spalding et al. 1997). We updated this information to include eleven island ecoregions for which no mapped data were available, but where mangroves occur with low mangrove coverage. Information on these was drawn from new work to be included in the publication of a new World Mangrove...
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Changes since pre-industrial times in sediment flow in rivers to the coast, by marine ecoregion. We calculated the change between preindustrial and modern sediment flow to marine ecoregions, based on estimates of sediment delivery for the world’s rivers by Syvitski et al. (2005). Syvitski et al. (2005) modeled preindustrial sediment loads using the Area Relief Temperature sediment delivery model (ART) version of the INSTAAR-DBFM model, which was tested on basins where current or past data were available for sediment loads before humans dominated their landscapes. Modern sediment was similarly modeled by Syvitski et al. (2005) with a discharge relief temperature sediment delivery model (QRT) that accounts for human-induced...
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Number of mangrove species, by marine ecoregion. We derived mangrove species diversity information from new maps of the individual ranges for sixty-five mangrove species that will be published in Spalding et al. (forthcoming). These range maps were overlain on ecoregion maps and species totals calculated for each. These data were derived by The Nature Conservancy, and were displayed in a map published in The Atlas of Global Conservation (Hoekstra et al., University of California Press, 2010). More information at http://nature.org/atlas. Data derived from: Spalding, M. D., M. Kainuma, L. Collins. Forthcoming. World Mangrove Atlas. London: Earthscan, with International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, Food and...
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Number of harmful species that have invaded marine habitats, by marine ecoregion. The occurrence and ecological impact of marine invasive species were compiled in a geographically referenced database by Molnar et al. (2008). Information about 329 species was systematically collected from a wide variety of global, regional, national, and subnational data sources. Non-native distributions were documented by marine ecoregion. The threat of each species to native biodiversity was scored using the following categories: 4, disrupts entire ecosystem processes with wider abiotic influences; 3, disrupts multiple species, some wider ecosystem function, and/or keystone species or species of high conservation value (e.g.,...
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Percent of coral reefs at risk, by marine ecoregion. The original Reefs at Risk indicator was devised by Bryant et al. (1998) with considerable expert consultation and utilized multiple global data layers to develop separate threat layers measuring coastal development, marine-based pollution, overexploitation and destructive fishing, and inland pollution and erosion. There are areas where particular elements of the model were not as effective, but it has proved a valuable generic tool that has led to further regional studies for Southeast Asia and for the Caribbean that followed the same basic principles, with only minor amendments to the model. Bryant et al. (1998) used the combined threat layers to derive a...
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Number of marine mammal species, by marine ecoregion. We extracted marine mammals from version 1.0 of the global polygon data set compiled by UNEP-WCMC from the publication Marine Mammals of the World (Jefferson et al. 1993) (for more information about the UNEP-WCMC source data set, e-mail spatialanalysis@unep-wcmc.org). There were 118 species in the data set (including cetaceans, sirenians, pinnipeds, and other marine carnivores). These included coastal and high seas species, although the latter may only occasionally venture onto continental shelf areas. It is likely that total diversity is underestimated for the Southern Ocean Realm, particularly the sub-Antarctic islands, because certain species in this realm...
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Percent of coastline densely populated, by marine ecoregion. The map shows the proportion of coastline (from the shore to within five kilometers of the coast) in each ecoregion where there are more than five hundred persons per square kilometer. By focusing attention on a narrow coastal strip, we believe that we are capturing areas with the highest likelihood of significant losses of intertidal and adjacent habitats as a result of building, dredging, land reclamation, and other forms of coastal engineering. It does not, of course, measure areas of coastal development per se and does not capture areas where aquaculture, agriculture, or low-density tourism have impacts. These data were derived by The Nature Conservancy,...


map background search result map search result map Kelp Abundance by Province Percent of Reefs at Risk by Marine Ecoregion Seagrass Abundance by Marine Ecoregion Salt Marsh Abundance by Marine Ecoregion Percent Marine Protected Area on Shelf by Marine Ecoregion (2008) Percent of High-Impact Bleaching Events by Marine Ecoregion Percent of Coast Densely Populated by Marine Ecoregion Number of Stony Coral Species by Marine Ecoregion Number of Seagrass Species by Marine Ecoregion Number of Seabird Species by Marine Ecoregion Number of Marine Stewardship Council Certified Fisheries by Marine Ecoregion Number of Mammal Species by Marine Ecoregion Number of Mangrove Species by Marine Ecoregion Number of Harmful Invasive Species by Marine Ecoregion Change in Sediment Flow since Preindustrial Times by Marine Ecoregion Number of Threatened Marine Mammal Species by Marine Ecoregion Bottom Trawling and Dredging by Marine Ecoregion Mangrove Forest Area by Marine Ecoregion Change in Nitrogen Flow by Marine Ecoregion Coral Reef Area by Marine Ecoregion Kelp Abundance by Province Percent of Reefs at Risk by Marine Ecoregion Seagrass Abundance by Marine Ecoregion Salt Marsh Abundance by Marine Ecoregion Percent Marine Protected Area on Shelf by Marine Ecoregion (2008) Percent of High-Impact Bleaching Events by Marine Ecoregion Percent of Coast Densely Populated by Marine Ecoregion Number of Stony Coral Species by Marine Ecoregion Number of Seagrass Species by Marine Ecoregion Number of Seabird Species by Marine Ecoregion Number of Marine Stewardship Council Certified Fisheries by Marine Ecoregion Number of Mammal Species by Marine Ecoregion Number of Mangrove Species by Marine Ecoregion Number of Harmful Invasive Species by Marine Ecoregion Change in Sediment Flow since Preindustrial Times by Marine Ecoregion Number of Threatened Marine Mammal Species by Marine Ecoregion Bottom Trawling and Dredging by Marine Ecoregion Mangrove Forest Area by Marine Ecoregion Change in Nitrogen Flow by Marine Ecoregion Coral Reef Area by Marine Ecoregion