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In 1982-1983, a 70 ha energy forest project was established in an arable landscape in southern Sweden. Many aspects of the energy forest system were investigated. This paper reports mainly on the aesthetic impacts of the project at a landscape level. One effect is an increasing variation in the views and the aesthetic values of the arable land. The Salix crops introduce new colours into the arable landscape. The green colour of the Salix fields lasts longer in the autumn. Also, from year to year a spatial Variation appears. The increasing wildlife shelter seems to make the fauna richer. Viewed as an energy crop only, the commercial competitiveness of energy forests is often low. However. if the benefits of energy...
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This map shows all the places conservation elements. Some of the places included exhibit high biodiversity or ecological and cultural value. This map also shows other managed areas from the Protected Areas Database, as well as those that are excluded. Associated input datasets are also included; they relate to biodiversity, special areas, and development. These data are provided by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) "as is" and may contain errors or omissions. The User assumes the entire risk associated with its use of these data and bears all responsibility in determining whether these data are fit for the User's intended use. These data may not have the accuracy, resolution, completeness, timeliness, or other characteristics...
The review provides an overview of the features of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea in their European geographical and socio-political context. To reach sustainability in the wider sense the common society has to meet the 7 tenets - that management actions have to be environmentally sustainable, economically viable, technologically feasible, socially desirable (or at least tolerable), legally permissible, administratively achievable and politically expedient. Each of these are explained and discussed using examples from the two seas including pollution control, physical resource exploitation (such as aggregates, habitat loss, renewable energy and oil and gas), and biological resources exploitation (fisheries and...
Community energy initiatives offer a potentially important means for reshaping the electrical system in a manner compatible with emissions reduction goals. Many such initiatives, however, focus upon top-down, institutionally structured approaches that understand community residents as atomistic, economically motivated, and minimally engaged. This paper examines a number of case studies that are based upon a bottom-up approach rooted in a civic culture that seeks to maximize the capacities of an active and engaged citizenry. The paper focuses upon two mutually dependent issues: first, recruiting community members, and second, sustaining their participation.
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This map gives a current and near-term spatial representation of how development change agents could potentially affecting grazing and herd management areas. Input datasets involved in this modeling are also included. These data are provided by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) "as is" and may contain errors or omissions. The User assumes the entire risk associated with its use of these data and bears all responsibility in determining whether these data are fit for the User's intended use. These data may not have the accuracy, resolution, completeness, timeliness, or other characteristics appropriate for applications that potential users of the data may contemplate. The User is encouraged to carefully consider the...
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Humans have dramatically altered wildlands in the western United States over the past 100 years by using these lands and the resources they provide. Anthropogenic changes to the landscape, such as urban expansion, construction of roads, power lines, and other networks and land uses necessary to maintain human populations influence the number and kinds of plants and wildlife that remain. We developed the map of the human footprint for the western United States from an analysis of 14 landscape structure and anthropogenic features: human habitation, interstate highways, federal and state highways, secondary roads, railroads, irrigation canals, power lines, linear feature densities, agricultural land, campgrounds, highway...
Civilization’s advances during the twentieth century are closely bound with an unprecedented rise of energy consumption in general, and of hydrocarbons and electricity in particular. Substantial improvements of all key nineteenth-century energy techniques and introduction of new extraction and transportation means and new prime movers resulted in widespread diffusion of labor-saving and comfort-providing conversions and in substantially declining energy prices. Although modern societies could not exist without large and incessant flows of energy, there are no simple linear relationships between the inputs of fossil fuels and electricity and a nation’s economic performance and social accomplishments. International...
Community energy initiatives offer a potentially important means for reshaping the electrical system in a manner compatible with emissions reduction goals. Many such initiatives, however, focus upon top-down, institutionally structured approaches that understand community residents as atomistic, economically motivated, and minimally engaged. This paper examines a number of case studies that are based upon a bottom-up approach rooted in a civic culture that seeks to maximize the capacities of an active and engaged citizenry. The paper focuses upon two mutually dependent issues: first, recruiting community members, and second, sustaining their participation.
Civilization’s advances during the twentieth century are closely bound with an unprecedented rise of energy consumption in general, and of hydrocarbons and electricity in particular. Substantial improvements of all key nineteenth-century energy techniques and introduction of new extraction and transportation means and new prime movers resulted in widespread diffusion of labor-saving and comfort-providing conversions and in substantially declining energy prices. Although modern societies could not exist without large and incessant flows of energy, there are no simple linear relationships between the inputs of fossil fuels and electricity and a nation’s economic performance and social accomplishments. International...
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Humans have dramatically altered wildlands in the western United States over the past 100 years by using these lands and the resources they provide. Anthropogenic changes to the landscape, such as urban expansion, construction of roads, power lines, and other networks and land uses necessary to maintain human populations influence the number and kinds of plants and wildlife that remain. We developed the map of the human footprint for the western United States from an analysis of 14 landscape structure and anthropogenic features: human habitation, interstate highways, federal and state highways, secondary roads, railroads, irrigation canals, power lines, linear feature densities, agricultural land, campgrounds, highway...
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Development changing the footprint for change agent, Near term. These data are provided by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) "as is" and may contain errors or omissions. The User assumes the entire risk associated with its use of these data and bears all responsibility in determining whether these data are fit for the User's intended use. These data may not have the accuracy, resolution, completeness, timeliness, or other characteristics appropriate for applications that potential users of the data may contemplate. The User is encouraged to carefully consider the content of the metadata file associated with these data. The BLM should be cited as the data source in any products derived from these data.
The condition of landscapes and the ecological communities within them is strongly related to levels of human activity. Human-dominated land uses and especially the intensity of the uses can affect adjacent ecological communities through direct, secondary, and cumulative impacts. Using land use data and a development-intensity measure derived from energy use per unit area, an index of Landscape Development Intensity (LDI) can be calculated for watersheds of varying sizes to estimate the potential impacts from human-dominated activities that are experienced by ecological systems within those watersheds. The intended use of the LDI is as an index of the human disturbance gradient (the level of human induced impacts...
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Humans have dramatically altered wildlands in the western United States over the past 100 years by using these lands and the resources they provide. Anthropogenic changes to the landscape, such as urban expansion, construction of roads, power lines, and other networks and land uses necessary to maintain human populations influence the number and kinds of plants and wildlife that remain. We developed the map of the human footprint for the western United States from an analysis of 14 landscape structure and anthropogenic features: human habitation, interstate highways, federal and state highways, secondary roads, railroads, irrigation canals, power lines, linear feature densities, agricultural land, campgrounds, highway...
A regularly raised concern for wind farms is the number of species and rate of bird and bat collisions with turbines. Australian regulators require, at some operating wind farms, the monitoring of bird and bat collisions. Although monitoring is becoming more commonplace, the area recommended for searching beneath turbines is inconsistent, with many guidelines both in Australia and overseas being based on conjecture rather than empirical evidence. This has the potential to bias survey results, reduce confidence in the data collected, and preclude meaningful comparisons between sites. By having a measure of the range of the fall zone of a bird or bat, a survey can be designed that ensures that an adequate area is...
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Humans have dramatically altered wildlands in the western United States over the past 100 years by using these lands and the resources they provide. Anthropogenic changes to the landscape, such as urban expansion, construction of roads, power lines, and other networks and land uses necessary to maintain human populations influence the number and kinds of plants and wildlife that remain. We developed the map of the human footprint for the western United States from an analysis of 14 landscape structure and anthropogenic features: human habitation, interstate highways, federal and state highways, secondary roads, railroads, irrigation canals, power lines, linear feature densities, agricultural land, campgrounds, highway...
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This map gives a current and near-term spatial representation of how development change agents could potentially affecting grazing and herd management areas. Input datasets involved in this modeling are also included. These data are provided by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) "as is" and may contain errors or omissions. The User assumes the entire risk associated with its use of these data and bears all responsibility in determining whether these data are fit for the User's intended use. These data may not have the accuracy, resolution, completeness, timeliness, or other characteristics appropriate for applications that potential users of the data may contemplate. The User is encouraged to carefully consider the...
This map was developed to map the probablity of cheatgrass in order to examine the overlap of cheatgrass with high priority sagebrush restoration areas. Logistic regression was used to create linear models that were than spatially applied to the landscape. Inputs for regression analysis included elevation, precipitation, soil pH, soil depth, soil salinity, and available water capacity extracted at 6,736 field sampling locations where cheatgrass occurrence was determined.


map background search result map search result map NWI Current Wetland Mapping Projects for the U.S. The Human Footprint in the West The Human Footprint in the West The Human Footprint in the West BLM REA NGB 2011 DV Human Footprint 180m.img BLM REA MBR 2010 Development Change Agents Against Grazing and Herd Management Areas BLM REA SNK 2010 CA DV C N Footprint FigA11 BLM REA CBR 2010 Development Change Agents Against Grazing and Herd Management Areas BLM REA MBR 2010 Places BLM REA MBR 2010 Places BLM REA MBR 2010 Development Change Agents Against Grazing and Herd Management Areas BLM REA NGB 2011 DV Human Footprint 180m.img BLM REA CBR 2010 Development Change Agents Against Grazing and Herd Management Areas BLM REA SNK 2010 CA DV C N Footprint FigA11 The Human Footprint in the West The Human Footprint in the West The Human Footprint in the West NWI Current Wetland Mapping Projects for the U.S.