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This paper proposes a regional and sectoral model of global final energy demand. For the main end-use sectors of consumption (industrial, commercial and public services, residential and road transportation), per-capita demand is expressed as an S-shaped function of per-capita income. Other variables intervene as well, like energy prices, temperatures and technological trends. This model is applied on a panel of 101 countries and 3 aggregates (covering the whole world) and it explains fairly well past variations in sectoral, final consumption since the beginning of the 2000s. Further, the model is used to analyze the dynamics of final energy demand, by sector and in total. The main conclusion concerns the pattern...
Governmental policy options in response to increasing concern over an emerging greenhouse warming are reviewed. These will reflect differing levels of pofitical concem as understanding on the future size and impacts of the greenhouse effect evolves. High levels of concem will place emphasis on the option of limiting C02 emissions by restricting fossil fuel use. This option requires emphasis on energy efficiency and changes in energy supply, with increased use of natural gas, nuclear power or renewable energy sources. The progressive industrialization of the LDCs with the consequent growth in energy demand, may put additional pressure on developed countries to take action on this policy option.