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This paper proposes a regional and sectoral model of global final energy demand. For the main end-use sectors of consumption (industrial, commercial and public services, residential and road transportation), per-capita demand is expressed as an S-shaped function of per-capita income. Other variables intervene as well, like energy prices, temperatures and technological trends. This model is applied on a panel of 101 countries and 3 aggregates (covering the whole world) and it explains fairly well past variations in sectoral, final consumption since the beginning of the 2000s. Further, the model is used to analyze the dynamics of final energy demand, by sector and in total. The main conclusion concerns the pattern...
Governmental policy options in response to increasing concern over an emerging greenhouse warming are reviewed. These will reflect differing levels of pofitical concem as understanding on the future size and impacts of the greenhouse effect evolves. High levels of concem will place emphasis on the option of limiting C02 emissions by restricting fossil fuel use. This option requires emphasis on energy efficiency and changes in energy supply, with increased use of natural gas, nuclear power or renewable energy sources. The progressive industrialization of the LDCs with the consequent growth in energy demand, may put additional pressure on developed countries to take action on this policy option.
This article describes the development of an energy accounting. This is a management tool to give farmers a clear understanding of their energy use and of the emission of greenhouse gases on their farm. Results are given of one year accounting on dairy farms and on pig farms. The results show large differences in energy use and in emissions of greenhouse gases between individual farms. These differences indicate that a substantial reduction of emission of greenhouse gasses is possible.
Biogas and bio-methane that are based on energy crops are renewable energy carriers and therefore potentially contribute to climate protection. However, significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions resulting from agricultural production processes must be considered. Among those, the production and use of fertilizer, and the resulting leaching of nitrous oxide (N2O), are crucial factors. This article provides an integrated life cycle assessment (LCA) of biogas (i.e. bio-methane that has been upgraded and injected into the natural gas grid), taking into account the processes of fermentation, upgrading and injection to the grid for two different types of biogas plants. The analysis is based on different feedstocks from...
With the number of vehicles on the world’s roads expected to grow to 2.9 billion by 2050, steps must be taken to reduce the CO2 emissions from transport. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) can help achieve this. This study aimed to determine the CO2 emissions stemming from BEV operation in different countries and to compare those CO2 emissions to the emissions from similar vehicles based on internal combustion engines (ICEs). This study selected four ICE-based vehicles, and modeled BEVs based on the specifications of each of these vehicles. The modeled BEVs were run through a simulation to determine their energy consumption. Their energy consumption was combined with data on the CO2 intensity of the power generation...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Electric, Emissions, Vehicles
This paper summarizes the main results of a study on the costs of abatement of CO2 emissions in Brazil. It discusses three possible futures for the long run (2010 and 2025) activity of the Brazilian economy and -- with the help of a linear programming model for Brazil's energy sector -- three scenarios for energy production and use. One of these scenarios illustrates the possibility of halving future carbon emissions originating from energy generation and consumption, with relatively small increases in energy associated costs and investments. This abatement scenario would require, on the supply side of the Brazilian energy balance, increased amounts of hydropower, ethanol and bagasse from sugarcane, plus wood and...
A new transportation demand model is described showing a simple data-base structure. It only requires input data referring to the fleets and the engine characteristics of the transportation park. The main characteristic of the model is its expertise in analysing the effects of different policies oriented to the reduction of the pollution levels and to the energy savings in the transportation sector. The results are provided both in terms of energy consumption and quantities of pollutant released to the environment. The effects of different transportation scenarios can be easily analysed using a simple "electronic sheet" way of representation.
A method is investigated for increasing the utilization efficiency of energy resources and reducing environmental emissions, focusing on utility-scale cogeneration and the contributions of nuclear energy. A case study is presented for Ontario using the nuclear and fossil facilities of the main provincial electrical utility. Implementation of utility-based cogeneration in Ontario or a region with a similar energy system and attributes is seen to be able to reduce significantly annual and cumulative uranium and fossil fuel use and related emissions, provide economic benefits for the province and its electrical utility, and substitute nuclear energy for fossil fuels. The reduced emissions of greenhouse gases are significant,...
Governmental policy options in response to increasing concern over an emerging greenhouse warming are reviewed. These will reflect differing levels of pofitical concem as understanding on the future size and impacts of the greenhouse effect evolves. High levels of concem will place emphasis on the option of limiting C02 emissions by restricting fossil fuel use. This option requires emphasis on energy efficiency and changes in energy supply, with increased use of natural gas, nuclear power or renewable energy sources. The progressive industrialization of the LDCs with the consequent growth in energy demand, may put additional pressure on developed countries to take action on this policy option.
Governmental policy options in response to increasing concern over an emerging greenhouse warming are reviewed. These will reflect differing levels of pofitical concem as understanding on the future size and impacts of the greenhouse effect evolves. High levels of concem will place emphasis on the option of limiting C02 emissions by restricting fossil fuel use. This option requires emphasis on energy efficiency and changes in energy supply, with increased use of natural gas, nuclear power or renewable energy sources. The progressive industrialization of the LDCs with the consequent growth in energy demand, may put additional pressure on developed countries to take action on this policy option.
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential to be an economic means of reducing direct (or tailpipe) carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transportation sector However, without a Climate policy that places a limit on CO2 emissions from the electric generation sector, the net impact of widespread deployment of PFIEVs on overall US CO2 emissions is not as clear. A comprehensive analysis must consider jointly the transportation and electricity sectors. along with feedbacks to the rest of the energy system. In this paper, we use the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's MiniCAM model to perform an integrated economic analysis of the penetration of PFIEVs and the resulting impact oil total U.S. CO2...
A common assumption in lifecycle assessment (LCA) based estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits (or costs) of renewable fuel such as biofuel is that it simply replaces an energy-equivalent amount of fossil fuel and that total fuel consumption remains unchanged. However, the adoption of renewable fuels will affect the price of fuel and therefore affect total fuel consumption which, may increase or decrease depending on the policy regime and market conditions. Using a representative two-region model of the global oil market in which, one region implements a domestic biofuel mandate and the other does not, we show that the net change in global fuel consumption due to the policy, which we term indirect fuel use change...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Biofuels, Emissions, Lifecycle
Goodstein identified and discussed a "Saturday effect" in data on the timing of tanker oil spills. This comment describes two ways in which the validity of the statistical analysis used to identify and confirm this effect can be strengthened.
A new transportation demand model is described showing a simple data-base structure. It only requires input data referring to the fleets and the engine characteristics of the transportation park. The main characteristic of the model is its expertise in analysing the effects of different policies oriented to the reduction of the pollution levels and to the energy savings in the transportation sector. The results are provided both in terms of energy consumption and quantities of pollutant released to the environment. The effects of different transportation scenarios can be easily analysed using a simple "electronic sheet" way of representation.
Noise exposure is known to cause hearing loss and a variety of disturbances, such as annoyance, hypertension and loss of sleep. It is generally accepted that these situations are caused by the acoustical events processed by the auditory system. However, there are acoustical events that are not necessarily processed by the auditory system, but that nevertheless cause harm. Infrasound and low frequency noise (ILFN, <500Hz) are acoustical phenomena that can impact the human body causing irreversible organic damage to the organism, but that do not cause classical hearing impairment. Acoustical environments are normally composed of all types of acoustical events: those that are processed by the auditory system, and those...
Use of ethanol as a transportation fuel in the United States has grown from 76 dam3 in 1980 to over 40.1 hm3 in 2009 — and virtually all of it has been produced from corn. It has been debated whether using corn ethanol results in any energy and greenhouse gas benefits. This issue has been especially critical in the past several years, when indirect effects, such as indirect land use changes, associated with U.S. corn ethanol production are considered in evaluation. In the past three years, modeling of direct and indirect land use changes related to the production of corn ethanol has advanced significantly. Meanwhile, technology improvements in key stages of the ethanol life cycle (such as corn farming and ethanol...
With the number of vehicles on the world’s roads expected to grow to 2.9 billion by 2050, steps must be taken to reduce the CO2 emissions from transport. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) can help achieve this. This study aimed to determine the CO2 emissions stemming from BEV operation in different countries and to compare those CO2 emissions to the emissions from similar vehicles based on internal combustion engines (ICEs). This study selected four ICE-based vehicles, and modeled BEVs based on the specifications of each of these vehicles. The modeled BEVs were run through a simulation to determine their energy consumption. Their energy consumption was combined with data on the CO2 intensity of the power generation...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Electric, Emissions, Vehicles
This paper summarizes the main results of a study on the costs of abatement of CO2 emissions in Brazil. It discusses three possible futures for the long run (2010 and 2025) activity of the Brazilian economy and -- with the help of a linear programming model for Brazil's energy sector -- three scenarios for energy production and use. One of these scenarios illustrates the possibility of halving future carbon emissions originating from energy generation and consumption, with relatively small increases in energy associated costs and investments. This abatement scenario would require, on the supply side of the Brazilian energy balance, increased amounts of hydropower, ethanol and bagasse from sugarcane, plus wood and...
This paper proposes a regional and sectoral model of global final energy demand. For the main end-use sectors of consumption (industrial, commercial and public services, residential and road transportation), per-capita demand is expressed as an S-shaped function of per-capita income. Other variables intervene as well, like energy prices, temperatures and technological trends. This model is applied on a panel of 101 countries and 3 aggregates (covering the whole world) and it explains fairly well past variations in sectoral, final consumption since the beginning of the 2000s. Further, the model is used to analyze the dynamics of final energy demand, by sector and in total. The main conclusion concerns the pattern...