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Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings were collected from 16 sites across the Great Lakes to quantify normal annual variation in total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) exposure and to validate the sample size choice in earlier work. A sample size of 5 eggs or 5 nestlings per site was adequate to quantify exposure to PCBs in tree swallows given the current exposure levels and variation. There was no difference in PCB exposure in 2 randomly selected sets of 5 eggs collected in the same year, but analyzed in different years. Additionally, there was only modest annual variation in exposure, with between 69% (nestlings) and 73% (eggs) of sites having no differences between years. There was a tendency,...
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During 2010-2014, tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) reproductive success was monitored at 68 sites across all 5 Great Lakes, including 58 sites located within Great Lakes Areas of concern (AOCs) and 10 non-AOCs. Sample eggs were collected from tree swallow clutches and analyzed for contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxin and furans, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and 34 other organic compounds. Contaminant data were available for 360 of the 1249 clutches monitored. Markov chain multistate modeling was used to assess the importance of 5 ecological and 11 of the dominant contaminants in explaining the pattern of egg and nestling failure rates. Four of 5 ecological variables (female Age, Date...


map background search result map search result map Reproductive success and contaminant associations in tree swallows (Tachnycineta bicolor) nesting in the U.S. and Binational Great Lakes' Areas of Concern data Reproductive success and contaminant associations in tree swallows (Tachnycineta bicolor) nesting in the U.S. and Binational Great Lakes' Areas of Concern data