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The aim of this study was to determine if Arase dam gate removal and flushing elevated concentrations of any trace elements in Kuma River and Yatsushiro Bay sediments or caused riverine environmental change. The Arase dam gate on the Kuma River was opened in April 2010. Surface and bottom sediments were compared using 10-cm-long cores (2011) and two grain size fractions. Surface sediment data from 2002, 2012, and 2013 from the Kuma River and Yatsushiro Bay were also compared. The sediments were analyzed using XRF for 23 elements, and the grain size analysis was done. The short core surface and bottom sediments do not show major chemical changes, and therefore, may not represent post-and pre-dam sediments. Results...
Stable isotopes of delta(18)O, delta(2)H, and (13)C, radiogenic isotopes of (14)C and (3)H, and ground water chemical compositions were used to distinguish ground water, recharge areas, and possible recharge processes in an arid zone, fault-bounded alluvial aquifer. Recharge mainly occurs through exposed stream channel beds as opposed to subsurface inflow along mountain fronts. This recharge distribution pattern may also occur in other fault-bounded aquifers, with important implications for conceptualization of ground water flow systems, development of ground water models, and ground water resource management. Ground water along the mountain front near the basin margins contains low delta(18)O, (14)C (percent modern...
Reciprocal selection pressures often lead to close and adaptive matching of traits in coevolved species. A failure of one species to match the evolutionary trajectories of another is often attributed to evolutionary lags or to differing selection pressures across a geographic mosaic. Here we show that mismatches in adaptation of interacting species–an obligate brood parasitic duck and each of its two main hosts–are best explained by the evolutionary dynamics within the host species. Rejection of the brood parasite's eggs was common by both hosts, despite a lack of detectable cost of parasitism to the hosts. Egg rejection markedly reduced parasite fitness, but egg mimicry experiments revealed no phenotypic natural...

map background search result map search result map Ground water recharge and flow characterization using multiple isotopes. Ground water recharge and flow characterization using multiple isotopes.