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Issues related to energy saving and pollution reduction are closely related. Their importance has increased in recent years and presents considerable academic and industrial challenges. They generally represent complex tasks of a considerable scale and comprehensive interactions. The methodology and concepts of Process Integration have been developing over last thirty years [1] and have been considerably expended to tackle these problems [2]. International conferences provide a good opportunity to review the state-of-the-art in this field. One of the most established and well known conference is PRES. The 13th Conference on “Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction...
With the continuing increase in world population, and rising standard of living, more and more water will be necessary to satisfy basic human needs. The global picture with regard to water use and availability is very uneven, and the policy options for major sectoral uses -- rural and urban water supply, agricultural requirements and hydro-electric power generation are explored. The social and environmental implications of water development are briefly discussed. Finally, the question of the availability of adequate water to sustain future world population and development to the year 2000 is analysed. It is concluded that the major problem in the area of water-resources development is not one of the Malthusian spectre...
The current project is aimed at developing a policy-oriented methodology for the integrated assessment of the global warming problem. Decision analysis in general and influence diagrams in particular appear to constitute an appropriate integrated assessment methodology. The influence-diagram approach is illustrated at a preliminary integrated modeling of the global warming problem. In next stages of the research, attention will be shifted from the methodology of integrated assessment to the contents of integrated models.
The first part of this paper presented an ab initio exposition of the development-focused end-useoriented service-directed (DEFENDUS) approach to energy planning. In this approach, the future demand for any source of energy is estimated on the basis of the energy services required and the efficiency with which these are provided. To meet this demand, the costs per unit of the available energy-supply/saving technologies are estimated and a least-cost mix of options identified. In this second part, some of the energy studies for which the DEFENDUS method has been used are described to demonstrate that its applicability is not confined to a particular region or source of energy. These studies include: electricity for...
Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have been funding a number of case studies under the initiative entitled “Economic Development through Biomass Systems Integration”, with the objective of investigate the feasibility of integrated biomass energy systems, utilizing a dedicated feedstock supply system (DFSS) for energy production. This paper deals with the full fuel cycle for four of these case studies. which have been examined with regard to the emissions of carbon dioxide, COZ. Although the conversion of biomass to electricity in itself does not emit more CO1 than is captured by the biomass through photosynthesis, there will be some CO1 emissions from the DFSS. External...
This article outlines in brief the conditions under which developing country governments are likely to feel motivated to take real action in addressing the greenhouse gas problem and the international mechanisms that are likely to succeed.
ABSTRACT: To help meet national energy demands, interest has been focused on the coal, oil shale, and uranium deposits of the Upper Colorado River Basin. Several energy output projections for the basin have been presented based upon water availability. Inherent in all these analyses are estimates as to the rate of water use in each energy development. New energy technologies are characterized by parameters extrapolated from small scale energy facilities. The data provide projected costs, conversion efficiencies, and material inputs and outputs. Alternative techniques for process cooling and solids handling provide variable rates of water use which affect other conversion parameters. Results from a mathematical model...
Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have been funding a number of case studies under the initiative entitled “Economic Development through Biomass Systems Integration”, with the objective of investigate the feasibility of integrated biomass energy systems, utilizing a dedicated feedstock supply system (DFSS) for energy production. This paper deals with the full fuel cycle for four of these case studies. which have been examined with regard to the emissions of carbon dioxide, COZ. Although the conversion of biomass to electricity in itself does not emit more CO1 than is captured by the biomass through photosynthesis, there will be some CO1 emissions from the DFSS. External...
ABSTRACT: To help meet national energy demands, interest has been focused on the coal, oil shale, and uranium deposits of the Upper Colorado River Basin. Several energy output projections for the basin have been presented based upon water availability. Inherent in all these analyses are estimates as to the rate of water use in each energy development. New energy technologies are characterized by parameters extrapolated from small scale energy facilities. The data provide projected costs, conversion efficiencies, and material inputs and outputs. Alternative techniques for process cooling and solids handling provide variable rates of water use which affect other conversion parameters. Results from a mathematical model...
Environmental monitoring has been an ongoing activity on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington for almost 50 years. Objectives are to detect and assess potential impacts of Site operations on air, surface and ground waters, foodstuffs, fish, wildlife, soil and vegetation. Data from monitoring effects are used to calculate the overall radiological dose to humans working onsite or residing in nearby communities. In 1989, measured Hanford Site perimeter concentrations of airborne radionuclides were below applicable guidelines. Concentrations of radionuclides and nonradiological water quality in the Columbia River were in compliance with applicable standards. Foodstuffs irrigated with...
With the continuing increase in world population, and rising standard of living, more and more water will be necessary to satisfy basic human needs. The global picture with regard to water use and availability is very uneven, and the policy options for major sectoral uses -- rural and urban water supply, agricultural requirements and hydro-electric power generation are explored. The social and environmental implications of water development are briefly discussed. Finally, the question of the availability of adequate water to sustain future world population and development to the year 2000 is analysed. It is concluded that the major problem in the area of water-resources development is not one of the Malthusian spectre...
By replacing fossil fuels bioenergy has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but indirect effects might partly or even completely eliminate this benefit. Production of bio-energy products, such as biofuels for transport, causes several indirect effects through their interactions with the global economic and physical systems. Indirect land-use change leads to GHG emissions – in some cases in the same order of magnitude as the fossil emissions – and loss of nature, but there are other relevant indirect effects as well. Intensification of agricultural production is another indirect effect and could be stimulated more to minimise the undesirable land conversion. However, intensification through increased...
The first part of this paper presented an ab initio exposition of the development-focused end-useoriented service-directed (DEFENDUS) approach to energy planning. In this approach, the future demand for any source of energy is estimated on the basis of the energy services required and the efficiency with which these are provided. To meet this demand, the costs per unit of the available energy-supply/saving technologies are estimated and a least-cost mix of options identified. In this second part, some of the energy studies for which the DEFENDUS method has been used are described to demonstrate that its applicability is not confined to a particular region or source of energy. These studies include: electricity for...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Integrated, energy, planning, scenarios
Based on the need to reduce CO2 emissions and minimize energy dependency, the EU Member States have set ambitious energy policies goals and have developed respective, specific regulations, in order to improve the energy performance of the building sector. Thus, specific measures regarding the buildings’ envelope, the use of efficient HVAC technologies and the integration of renewable energy systems are being constantly studied and promoted. The effective combination of these three main aspects will consequently result in maximum energy efficiency. Germany has played a key role in this development, with intensive work focusing in the improvement of the energy behaviour of the residential building stock. In this paper,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Integrated, energy, planning, policy, water
Integrated assessment models of global environmental problems play an increasingly important role in decision making. This use demands a good insight regarding the reliability of these models. In this paper we analyze uncertainty management in the IMAGE-project (Integrated Model to Assess the Greenhouse Effect). We use a classification scheme comprising type and source of uncertainty. Our analysis shows reliability analysis as main area for improvement. We briefly review a recently developed methodology, NUSAP, that systematically addresses the strength of data in terms of spread, reliability and scientific status (pedigree) of information. This approach is being tested through interviews with model builders.
Wind power forecasts are in various ways valuable for users in decision-making processes. However, most forecasts are deterministic, and hence possibly important information about uncertainty is not available. Complete information about future production can be obtained by using probabilistic forecasts, and this article demonstrates how such forecasts can be created by means of local quantile regression. The approach has several advantages, such as no distributional assumptions and flexible inclusion of predictive information. In addition, it can be shown that, for some purposes, forecasts in terms of quantiles provide the type of information required to make optimal economic decisions. The methodology is applied...
The future trajectory of fossil fuel emissions is one of the largest uncertainties in predicting climate change. While global emissions scenarios are ultimately of interest for climate modeling, many of the factors that influence energy and fuel consumption operate on a local rather than global level. However, there have been relatively few comprehensive studies of the ecological and socioeconomic processes that will determine the future trajectory of net carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at local and regional scales. We conducted an interdisciplinary, whole ecosystem study of the role of climate, urban expansion, urban form, transportation, and the urban forest in influencing net CO2 emissions in the Salt Lake Valley,...
A model of carbon, nitrogen and water flows within an ecosystem in relation to changes in species composition is nearing completion. This model, which applies to succession on sandy soils, will be used to investigate the effects of temperature, nitrogen deposition and CO2 concentration in the atmosphere on vegetation succession. The model applies to primary succession on sandy soils. Parameters are being collected in a Dutch drift sand area (Hulshorsterzand). Preliminary simulation show strong interactions between the effects nitrogen deposition and CO2 concentration: The rate nitrogen is supplied to the ecosystem influences whether species replacement is accelerated, not affected or delayed by increasing CO2 concentrations....