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Mandatory targets for biofuels have led to their rapid global adoption, but ethical problems with their large-scale production are widely reported. Research is underway to find new biofuel technologies that mitigate climate change and can be produced sustainably and economically. Following an 18-month inquiry, the Nuffield Council on Bioethics has developed an ethical framework for biofuels policy-making. Based on a number of widely held ethical values, six ethical principles are introduced that should be considered in biofuels policy-making. Many current biofuels policies fail this ethical ‘test’. An overarching ethical standard for biofuels is proposed that includes the protection of human rights and the environment,...
Mandatory targets for biofuels have led to their rapid global adoption, but ethical problems with their large-scale production are widely reported. Research is underway to find new biofuel technologies that mitigate climate change and can be produced sustainably and economically. Following an 18-month inquiry, the Nuffield Council on Bioethics has developed an ethical framework for biofuels policy-making. Based on a number of widely held ethical values, six ethical principles are introduced that should be considered in biofuels policy-making. Many current biofuels policies fail this ethical ‘test’. An overarching ethical standard for biofuels is proposed that includes the protection of human rights and the environment,...
The concept of managing the environment and any associated human health impacts by means of such science-based tools as toxicological evaluation, risk assessment, and economic appraisal has become widely accepted in professional circles. These increasingly complex methodologies have not won universal support, however, even among the technically minded, and the wider public has in many cases remained sceptical. The public’s seeming lack of enthusiasm has frequently been assigned to ignorance of science, irrationality even, and some attempts have been made to ameliorate the situation by means of education, though with little evidence of success. However, this review advances an alternative explanation, namely, that...
Three major contemperary problems related to energy are discussed by Dr. Maxey. First, the alleged causal association between environmental degradation and energy-intensive technology is refuted. Dr. Maxey contends only the wealthy, high-technology societies are able to protect environmental quality. For example, only technologically advanced nations can afford sewage systems, disposal plants, etc. Concerning the alleged causal association between natural resource exhaustion and industralized hard technology, Dr. Maxey suggests that industralized nations are better able to protect renewable resources, like forests. Less-developed countries without other sources fo energy must cut their forests for fuel. The final...
Three major contemperary problems related to energy are discussed by Dr. Maxey. First, the alleged causal association between environmental degradation and energy-intensive technology is refuted. Dr. Maxey contends only the wealthy, high-technology societies are able to protect environmental quality. For example, only technologically advanced nations can afford sewage systems, disposal plants, etc. Concerning the alleged causal association between natural resource exhaustion and industralized hard technology, Dr. Maxey suggests that industralized nations are better able to protect renewable resources, like forests. Less-developed countries without other sources fo energy must cut their forests for fuel. The final...