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The region of Valencia has a marked territorial duality: an urbanised, populated and high-income coastal line, and mountain and depressed inland rural areas. This territorial duality also derives in a functional duality, so that market and regulation drivers seem to assign rural areas specific roles for the provision of raw materials, energy, water, and the like. One of the clearest examples can be found in the design and development of the Wing Energy Plan passed by the Regional Government in 2001, which designated areas for the installation of windmills. However, this regulation has resulted in an outstanding emergence of associations that have organised at several levels (from the local to the national) as a...
Stabilising the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere at a level of 450 ppm in order to keep global temperature increase below 2 °C requires an ambitious climate policy. This study analyses the role of different technologies in the EU-27 with regard to efficiency improvements, fuel switching and energy saving measures under such a climate policy target. The analysis is carried out using the regionalised Pan-European TIMES energy system model, a technology oriented, linear optimisation model. Thereby limited resources and import potentials of various energy carriers, competition among different sectors and the country-specific differences in energy demand are taken into account. As a result, it turns out that the...
By replacing fossil fuels bioenergy has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but indirect effects might partly or even completely eliminate this benefit. Production of bio-energy products, such as biofuels for transport, causes several indirect effects through their interactions with the global economic and physical systems. Indirect land-use change leads to GHG emissions – in some cases in the same order of magnitude as the fossil emissions – and loss of nature, but there are other relevant indirect effects as well. Intensification of agricultural production is another indirect effect and could be stimulated more to minimise the undesirable land conversion. However, intensification through increased...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: bio-energy, effects, indirect, production
Biogas and bio-methane that are based on energy crops are renewable energy carriers and therefore potentially contribute to climate protection. However, significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions resulting from agricultural production processes must be considered. Among those, the production and use of fertilizer, and the resulting leaching of nitrous oxide (N2O), are crucial factors. This article provides an integrated life cycle assessment (LCA) of biogas (i.e. bio-methane that has been upgraded and injected into the natural gas grid), taking into account the processes of fermentation, upgrading and injection to the grid for two different types of biogas plants. The analysis is based on different feedstocks from...
In the projects fostered by the NRP the effects of changed climate (atmospheric CO2 concentration, temperature) on different terrestrial ecosystems were studied. For forests it was concluded that the initial stimulation of tree growth in general did not persist after two years, and therefore care must be taken not to overestimate the potential contribution of increased carbon sequestration by forests. On the other hand, shifted patterns of carbon distribution in the tree-soil system may lead to a higher soil organic matter content, which will contribute to an improved soil structure and availability of soil moisture. A sensitivity analysis revealed that, for the poor sandy forest soils, improved rooting depth is...
State policies can support renewable energy development by driving markets, providing certainty in the investment market, and incorporating the external benefits of the technologies into cost/benefit calculations. Using statistical analyses and policy design best practices, this paper quantifies the impact of state-level policies on renewable energy development in order to better understand the role of policy on development and inform policy makers on the policy mechanisms that provide maximum benefit. The results include the identification of connections between state policies and renewable energy development, as well as a discussion placing state policy efforts in context with other factors that influence the...
By replacing fossil fuels bioenergy has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but indirect effects might partly or even completely eliminate this benefit. Production of bio-energy products, such as biofuels for transport, causes several indirect effects through their interactions with the global economic and physical systems. Indirect land-use change leads to GHG emissions – in some cases in the same order of magnitude as the fossil emissions – and loss of nature, but there are other relevant indirect effects as well. Intensification of agricultural production is another indirect effect and could be stimulated more to minimise the undesirable land conversion. However, intensification through increased...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: bio-energy, effects, indirect, production
By replacing fossil fuels bioenergy has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but indirect effects might partly or even completely eliminate this benefit. Production of bio-energy products, such as biofuels for transport, causes several indirect effects through their interactions with the global economic and physical systems. Indirect land-use change leads to GHG emissions – in some cases in the same order of magnitude as the fossil emissions – and loss of nature, but there are other relevant indirect effects as well. Intensification of agricultural production is another indirect effect and could be stimulated more to minimise the undesirable land conversion. However, intensification through increased...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: bio-energy, effects, indirect, production
Human activity causes wintering waterfowl to expend energy to avoid humans at a time in their annual cycle when energy conservation is important to survival, migration, and breeding reserves. Understanding the effects of recreational activities on waterfowl is important to managing natural resource areas where migratory birds depend on wetland habitat for resting and feeding. We investigated responses of 7 species of dabbling ducks to 5 different experimental human activities, (a pedestrian, a bicyclist, a truck traveling at 2 different speeds, and an electric passenger tram). Responses of ducks depended on type of disturbance, species, and distance from disturbances. Most birds responded to the treatments. People...
Electricity-generating wind turbines are an attractive energy source because they are renewable and produce no emissions. However, they have at least two potentially damaging ecological effects. Their rotating blades are hazardous to raptors which occasionally fly into them. And wind turbines are very noisy when active, a feature that may interfere with the lives of animals beneath them. We studied California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area of Northern California. These squirrels emit vocalizations that alert others to the presence of a predator, and so may be forced to compensate for turbine noise by modifying antipredator behavior. We compared the antipredator behavior...
Yields of winter wheat, silage maize and grain maize in the main arable areas of the European Union (E.U.) were calculated with a simulation model, WOFOST, using historical weather data and average soil characteristics. The sensitivity of the model to individual weather variables was determined.Subsequent analyses were made using climate change scenarios with and without the direct effects of increased atmospheric CO 2. The impact of crop management in a changed climate was also assessed. The various climate change scenarios used appear to yield considerably different changes in yield, both for each location and for the E.U. as a whole.
Biogas and bio-methane that are based on energy crops are renewable energy carriers and therefore potentially contribute to climate protection. However, significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions resulting from agricultural production processes must be considered. Among those, the production and use of fertilizer, and the resulting leaching of nitrous oxide (N2O), are crucial factors. This article provides an integrated life cycle assessment (LCA) of biogas (i.e. bio-methane that has been upgraded and injected into the natural gas grid), taking into account the processes of fermentation, upgrading and injection to the grid for two different types of biogas plants. The analysis is based on different feedstocks from...
Biological control of invasive saltcedars (Tamarix spp.) in the western U.S. by exotic tamarisk leaf beetles, Diorhabda spp., first released in 2001 after 15 years of development, has been successful. In Texas, beetles from Crete, Greece were first released in 2004 and are providing control. However, adults alight, feed and oviposit on athel (Tamarix aphylla), an evergreen tree used for shade and as a windbreak in the southwestern U.S. and México, and occasionally feed on native Frankenia spp. plants. The ability of tamarisk beetles to establish on these potential field hosts was investigated in the field. In no-choice tests in bagged branches, beetle species from Crete and Sfax, Tunisia produced 30–45% as many...
This study shows that metal-contaminated sediments cause adverse biological effects at all levels of biological organization, from cellular to ecosystem-level responses, even where the corresponding surface water meets water-quality-based criteria. We studied the effects of contamination from the abandoned Alder Mine, Alder Mill, and Red Shirt Mill located near the town of Twisp on the eastern slopes of the north Cascade Mountains in Okanogan County, Washington (U.S.A.) on fish and wildlife habitat in the Methow River. Ore deposits in the area were mined for gold, silver, copper and zinc until the early 1950s. An up-gradient and down-gradient approach was used to compare impacted sites to control sites. Although...
We studied effects of disturbance on migrating waterbirds during spring on Cumberland Pool at Tishomingo National Wildlife Refuge, Tishomingo, Oklahoma, USA, 1999 and 2000. We recorded 240 disturbances in 477.5 hr of observation of American coots (Fulica americana), American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), black terns (Chlidonias niger), blue-winged teal (Anas discors), and Franklin's gulls (Larus pipixcan). Recreation (n= 208) accounted for 86.7% of all disturbances, natural disturbances (n = 23) accounted for 9.6%, and 3.3% of disturbances (n = 8) were unknown. Boat fishing increased alertness by American white pelicans but did not affect escape behavior. Recreational disturbances caused increases...