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An unsaturated-zone transport model was used to examine the transport and fate of metolachlor applied to an agricultural site in Maryland, USA. The study site was instrumented to collect data on soil-water content, soil-water potential, ground water levels, major ions, pesticides, and nutrients from the unsaturated zone during 2002-2004. The data set was enhanced with site-specific information describing weather, soils, and agricultural practices. The Root Zone Water Quality Model was used to simulate physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in the unsaturated zone. Model calibration to bromide tracer concentrations indicated flow occurred through the soil matrix. Simulated recharge rates were within...
The aim of this study was to determine if Arase dam gate removal and flushing elevated concentrations of any trace elements in Kuma River and Yatsushiro Bay sediments or caused riverine environmental change. The Arase dam gate on the Kuma River was opened in April 2010. Surface and bottom sediments were compared using 10-cm-long cores (2011) and two grain size fractions. Surface sediment data from 2002, 2012, and 2013 from the Kuma River and Yatsushiro Bay were also compared. The sediments were analyzed using XRF for 23 elements, and the grain size analysis was done. The short core surface and bottom sediments do not show major chemical changes, and therefore, may not represent post-and pre-dam sediments. Results...
We investigated the bioavailability via diet of spiked benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-52) from different carbonaceous (non-carbonate, carbon containing) particle types to clams (Macoma balthica) collected from San Francisco Bay. Our results reveal significant differences in absorption efficiency between compounds and among carbonaceous particle types. Absorption efficiency for PCB-52 was always greater than that for BaP bound to a given particle type. Among particles, absorption efficiency was highest from wood and diatoms and lowest from activated carbon. Large differences in absorption efficiency could not be simply explained by comparatively small differences in the particles' total...
Water introduced to surface drainages, such as agricultural and roadway runoff, mine drainage, or coalbed natural gas (CBNG)-produced water, potentially can be of environmental concern. In order to mitigate potential environmental effects, it may be important to be able to trace water discharged to the surface as it infiltrates and interacts with near-surface aquifers. We have chosen to study water withdrawn during CBNG production for isotope tracing in the hyporheic zone because it poses a variety of economic, environmental, and policy issues in the Rocky Mountain states. Ground water quality must be protected as CBNG water is added to semiarid ecosystems. Strontium (Sr) isotopes are effective fingerprints of the...
Larval flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis) were exposed to arsenate, boron, copper, molybdenum, selenate, selenite, uranium, vanadium, and zinc singly, and to five mixtures of five to nine inorganics. The exposures were conducted in reconstituted water representative of the San Juan River near Shiprock, New Mexico. The mixtures simulated environmental ratios reported for sites along the San Juan River (San Juan River backwater, Fruitland marsh, Hogback East Drain, Mancos River, and McElmo Creek). The rank order of the individual inorganics, from most to least toxic, was: copper > zinc > vanadium > selenite > selenate > arsenate > uranium > boron > molybdenum. All five mixtures exhibited additive toxicity...
This work characterizes the efficacy of activated carbon amendment in reducing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioavailability to clams (Macoma balthica) from field-contaminated sediment (Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, San Francisco Bay, CA, USA). Test methods were developed for the use of clams to investigate the effects of sediment amendment on biological uptake. Sediment was mixed with activated carbon for one month. Bioaccumulation tests (28 d) were employed to assess the relationships between carbon dose and carbon particle size on observed reductions in clam biological uptake of PCBs. Extraction and cleanup protocols were developed for the clam tissue. Efficacy of activated carbon treatment was found to increase...
The five major reductive degradation products of TNT-4ADNT (4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene), 2ADNT (2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene), 2,4DANT (2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene), 2,6DANT (2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene), and TAT (2,4,6-triaminotoluene)-labeled with 15N in the amine positions, were reacted with the IHSS soil humic acid and analyzed by 15N NMR spectrometry. In the absence of catalysts, all five amines underwent nucleophilic addition reactions with quinone and other carbonyl groups in the soil humic acid to form both heterocyclic and nonheterocyclic condensation products. Imine formation via 1,2-addition of the amines to quinone groups in the soil humic acid was significant with the diamines and TAT but not the monoamines....
One promising application of biotechnology is in making the production of energy and chemical products from plants ("biomass") practical. Applications include new markets for crops and reduction of wastes by using field residues or "wastelands" as feedstocks in biomass energy production. In addition, engineered crops could synthesize complex compounds. However, conversion to widespread use of biomass could have undersirable impacts. For example, changes in cropping practices may reduce wildlife populations or disrupt food chains. Other negative impacts of an environmentally insensitive development might include increased release of CO2 (worsening global warming), and production of wastes, either water, chemical...
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A substantial amount of laboratory and field research on selenium effects to biota has been accomplished since the national water quality criterion was published for selenium in 1987. Many articles have documented adverse effects on biota at concentrations below the current chronic criterion of 5 microg/L. This commentary will present information to support a national water quality criterion for selenium of 2 microg/L, based on a wide array of support from federal, state, university, and international sources. Recently, two articles have argued for a sediment-based criterion and presented a model for deriving site-specific criteria. In one example, they calculate a criterion of 31 microg/L for a stream with a low...
Trophic transfer is the main process by which upper trophic level wildlife are exposed to selenium. Transfers through lower levels of a predator's food web thus can be instrumental in determining the threat of selenium in an ecosystem. Little is known about Se transfer through pelagic, zooplankton-based food webs in San Francisco Bay ([SFB], CA, USA), which serve as an energy source for important predators such as striped bass: A dynamic multipathway bioaccumulation model was used to model Se transfer from phytoplankton to pelagic copepods to carnivorous mysids (Neomysis mercedis). Uptake rates of dissolved Se, depuration rates, and assimilation efficiencies (AE) for the model were determined for copepods and mysids...
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This dataset depicts the distribution and summary toxic chemical release information for pulp and paper mills within the United States. This dataset is based on data retrieved from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database on 4/2008 by the Conservation Biology Institute (CBI). These data are based on the 2006 EPA reporting year, and do not reflect cumulative toxic release quantities for previous years. Using a series of queries against the TRI database, we compiled information about the locations of pulp and paper mills and quantities of toxic chemical release by various categories. From this information, we calculated the total toxic chemical release, and split this into...


    map background search result map search result map Water-sediment controversy in setting environmental standards for selenium. U.S. Pulp and Paper Mills Water-sediment controversy in setting environmental standards for selenium. U.S. Pulp and Paper Mills