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Hydrothermally altered rocks, particularly if water saturated, can weaken stratovolcanoes, thereby increasing the potential for catastrophic sector collapses that can lead to far-traveled, destructive debris flows, which are the largest volcanic hazards for Mount Adams and Mount Baker. Evaluating the hazards associated with such alteration is difficult because much of the alteration is obscured by ice and its depth extent is unknown. Intense hydrothermal alteration significantly reduces the resistivity and magnetization of volcanic rock and therefore hydrothermally altered rocks are identified with helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic measurements at Mount Baker and Mount Adams. High resolution magnetic and electromagnetic...
Our research focuses on developing methods to analyze volcano-hydrothermal systems and on the application of these methods to particular volcanic systems in the western United States. Specific research questions include (1) What are the modes of heat and mass transport from magma to the shallow subsurface? (2) What are the pressure, temperature, and fluid-saturation conditions between magma and the land surface? (3) What controls the permeability of volcanoes? How does it vary in space and time? What role do temporal variations in permeability play in the evolution of volcanogenic hydrothermal systems and episodes of volcanic unrest? (4) How well-coupled are various fluid flow, transport, and mechanical deformation...
The NRP had its beginnings in the late 1950's. Since that time, the program has grown to encompass a broad spectrum of scientific investigations. The sciences of hydrology, mathematics, chemistry, physics, ecology, biology, geology, and engineering are used to gain a fundamental understanding of the processes that affect the availability, movement, and quality of the Nation's water resources. Results of NRP's long-term research investigations often lead to the development of new concepts, techniques, and approaches that are applicable not only to the solution of current water problems, but also to future issues that may affect the Nation's water resources. Basic tools of hydrology that have been developed by the...
Categories: Project; Types: ScienceBase Project; Tags: Acid Mine Drainage, Aquatic Habitat, Arid Land Hydrology, Carbon Cycle, Contaminant Reactions and Transport, All tags...
Quantitative understanding of groundwater and gas-rich fluid- and thermodynamics in volcanic areas is important for several reasons: 1) as a major source of hazard such as propellant in steam-driven explosions, lubricant in mudflows, and transport agent for toxic constituents such as arsenic and mercury that are dissolved from fresh volcanic rock, 2) groundwater pressure, temperature and chemical changes might signal one of the earliest warnings of volcanic unrest, 3) exploration and mining of geothermal energy and mineral deposits. Many of the geochemical, geodetic, and seismic signals measured at the ground surface as part of the volcano monitoring strategies have hydrothermal origins or magmatic origins modulated...
Reconnaissance and chemical and isotope sampling of thermal springs in the western United States has not generally provided information of sufficient detail to permit the geothermal potential of most individual areas to be determined with any certainty. This is especially true in the Cascade Mountain Range, where the chemical geothermometers indicate much lower temperatures of water-rock equilibrium than the sulfate-isotope geothermometer and the geologic setting seem to require. This discrepancy could be due to simple mixing of thermal and fresh water or rapid equilibration of water with the surrounding country rock as the fluids rise to the surface; alternatively, the sulfate-isotopic composition could be an artifact...
Reconnaissance and chemical and isotope sampling of thermal springs in the western United States has not generally provided information of sufficient detail to permit the geothermal potential of most individual areas to be determined with any certainty. This is especially true in the Cascade Mountain Range, where the chemical geothermometers indicate much lower temperatures of water-rock equilibrium than the sulfate-isotope geothermometer and the geologic setting seem to require. This discrepancy could be due to simple mixing of thermal and fresh water or rapid equilibration of water with the surrounding country rock as the fluids rise to the surface; alternatively, the sulfate-isotopic composition could be an artifact...
Reconnaissance and chemical and isotope sampling of thermal springs in the western United States has not generally provided information of sufficient detail to permit the geothermal potential of most individual areas to be determined with any certainty. This is especially true in the Cascade Mountain Range, where the chemical geothermometers indicate much lower temperatures of water-rock equilibrium than the sulfate-isotope geothermometer and the geologic setting seem to require. This discrepancy could be due to simple mixing of thermal and fresh water or rapid equilibration of water with the surrounding country rock as the fluids rise to the surface; alternatively, the sulfate-isotopic composition could be an artifact...


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