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This paper proposes a regional and sectoral model of global final energy demand. For the main end-use sectors of consumption (industrial, commercial and public services, residential and road transportation), per-capita demand is expressed as an S-shaped function of per-capita income. Other variables intervene as well, like energy prices, temperatures and technological trends. This model is applied on a panel of 101 countries and 3 aggregates (covering the whole world) and it explains fairly well past variations in sectoral, final consumption since the beginning of the 2000s. Further, the model is used to analyze the dynamics of final energy demand, by sector and in total. The main conclusion concerns the pattern...
Advances in technology and engineering are enhancing the contribution that wind power makes to renewable energy generation. Wind farms, both operational and in planning, can be expected to impact negatively on wildlife populations, particularly birds. We propose a novel approach to assess the impacts through the energetic costs of avoidance behaviour for a long-distance, migratory seaduck. Flight trajectories were recorded using surveillance radar at a Danish offshore wind farm with emphasis placed on the 200 000+ migrating common eiders that pass through the area annually. Minimum distance to wind farm and curvature of trajectories were compared pre- and post-construction. Additional costs of the avoidance response...
This paper proposes a regional and sectoral model of global final energy demand. For the main end-use sectors of consumption (industrial, commercial and public services, residential and road transportation), per-capita demand is expressed as an S-shaped function of per-capita income. Other variables intervene as well, like energy prices, temperatures and technological trends. This model is applied on a panel of 101 countries and 3 aggregates (covering the whole world) and it explains fairly well past variations in sectoral, final consumption since the beginning of the 2000s. Further, the model is used to analyze the dynamics of final energy demand, by sector and in total. The main conclusion concerns the pattern...
A major objective of the energy transition is to reduce dependence on oil imports through structural change in energy systems leading to lower and sustained oil use. This paper outlines possible directions which can be followed under conditions of healthy economic growth to achieve a smooth transition. It also provides a framework to identify and analyse potential energy problem areas. An important conclusion is that although IEA net oil imports in 2000 could be reduced to about 15 million bbl/day, this will not be easy. To supplement market forces, effective energy policies will be necessary to bring on non-oil supplies in time, promote the replacement of oil by other fuels and restrain oil demand.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Energy, IEA, Transition
In building a governance regime to address climate change, should we prioritize the development of global institutions or national ones? This paper focuses on two neglected characteristics to inform the governance problem: the incentives for investment in low-carbon energy technology and the influence of historical policy volatility. Examining a case study of an important low-carbon energy technology, wind power, this study finds: (1) policy volatility has been substantial, (2) policy changes were uncorrelated across jurisdictions, suggesting that (3) investors could have substantially reduced their exposure to the risk of policy volatility by operating globally. While it also has downsides, a poorly coordinated...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: energy, sustainable, transition, trust
A major objective of the energy transition is to reduce dependence on oil imports through structural change in energy systems leading to lower and sustained oil use. This paper outlines possible directions which can be followed under conditions of healthy economic growth to achieve a smooth transition. It also provides a framework to identify and analyse potential energy problem areas. An important conclusion is that although IEA net oil imports in 2000 could be reduced to about 15 million bbl/day, this will not be easy. To supplement market forces, effective energy policies will be necessary to bring on non-oil supplies in time, promote the replacement of oil by other fuels and restrain oil demand.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Energy, IEA, Transition
The timely development of the nation's energy production capacity in a manner that minimizes potential adverse local and regional impacts associated with energy facilities requires the use of sophisticated techniques for evaluation of siting alternatives and fuel cycle options. This report is a documentation of the computerized SITE methodology that has been developed for evaluating health, environmental, and socioeconomic impacts related to utilization of alternate sites for energy production within a region of interest. The cost, impact, and attribute vectors, which are generated and displayed on density maps, can be used in a multiparameter overlay process to identify preferable siting areas. The assessment of...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Siting, energy, facility, process, transition
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The datasets that are available are intended to show different facets of the spatial and temporal distribution of surface water over the last 32 years. Some of those datasets are intended to be mapped (e.g. the seasonality layer) and some are intended to show the temporal change at specific locations (i.e. the water history). In addition, there are datasets that provide metadata on the number of observations and valid observations that were used and these can be used to estimate the confidence levels in the data.


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