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Number of amphibian species, by freshwater ecoregion. We calculated the number of amphibian species per freshwater ecoregion using species range maps of the Global Amphibian Assessment (GAA, www.iucnredlist.org/amphibians) (IUCN et al. 2006). The 2006 GAA assessed 5,918 amphibian species and provided distribution maps for 5,640 of those species. When a range overlapped several ecoregions, we counted species as present in all those ecoregions that had part of the range. This may have resulted in an overestimate of species numbers in some ecoregions, especially those that are long and narrow in shape. This is particularly true for the Amazonas High Andes ecoregion (312), where the mountain range has been used as...
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Relative abundance of salt marsh habitat, by marine ecoregion. We compiled a global database on salt marshes in collaboration with UNEP-WCMC and with input from Paul Adam, University of New South Wales, Australia. In this database, habitat abundance was estimated using the array of point locations and GIS data holdings from this database and were broadly based on abundance as a proportion of the total coastline length in each ecoregion. Salt marshes were poorly covered in the literature for some parts of the Arctic coastline and from wide areas of the tropics where salt marshes were often overlooked or classified within mangrove areas. While efforts were made to target data searching for these regions, there may...
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Number of mammal species, by terrestrial ecoregion. We compiled data on terrestrial mammals by querying the WWF WildFinder database for species occurrences by ecoregion. The WWF WildFinder database is a spatially explicit online database of vertebrate species occurrences by ecoregion. These data were displayed in a map published in The Atlas of Global Conservation (Hoekstra et al., University of California Press, 2010). More information at http://nature.org/atlas.
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Number of globally threatened animals, by terrestrial ecoregion. We compiled a vertebrate species list for each ecoregion from WWF’s WildFinder database (WWF 2006). This list was then compared against the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2008) to determine the number of species per ecoregion that are threatened. Threatened species are those listed by IUCN Red List as Vulnerable, Endangered, or Critically Endangered (www.redlist.org). These data were derived by The Nature Conservancy, and were displayed in a map published in The Atlas of Global Conservation (Hoekstra et al., University of California Press, 2010). More information at http://nature.org/atlas. Data derived from: World Wildlife Fund (WWF). 2006....
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Amount of fish and shellfish caught using bottom trawling and dredging (1955-2004), by marine ecoregion. The map shows trawling and dredging fishing pressure by marine ecoregion between 1955 and 2004, using fish and shellfish catch data from the University of British Columbia (SAUP 2007). Our analysis of the catch data was limited to species caught by bottom trawl or dredge gear (Watson et al. 2006a). We calculated the annual total tonnage of catch for all species caught by these gears in each ecoregion. To account for recovery of benthic systems over time, we applied a decay factor of 2 percent for each year before 2004 to the total catch (implying a full recovery in fifty years). We then calculated the cumulative...
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Number of seagrass species, by marine ecoregion. We extracted seagrasses from version 2.0 of the global polygon and point data set that was compiled by UNEP-WCMC in 2005 (for more information about the source data set, e-mail spatialanalysis@unep-wcmc.org). These same data were originally published in the World Atlas of Seagrasses (Green and Short 2003; see, in particular, the chapter by Spalding et al. 2003). The source data for the habitat map were a mix of point and polygon information gathered from a major literature review as well as from national-level mapping programs. We developed the species diversity map from range maps drawn for fifty-five species. The four species from the genus Ruppia were not mapped...
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Number of stony coral species, by marine ecoregion. Stony coral range maps have been drawn by Veron (2000), who kindly made available to us range maps for 794 species. We laid these range maps over the ecoregions to derive a species total for each ecoregion. Note that these stony corals have a wider range than coral reefs. The large physical structures of coral reefs only develop where such corals survive in sufficient densities (and usually diversity) over the long time scales it takes for such structures to form. These data were derived by The Nature Conservancy, and were displayed in a map published in The Atlas of Global Conservation (Hoekstra et al., University of California Press, 2010). More information...
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Percent of ecoregion area covered with forest habitat. We derived the forest map from forest and woodland classes of the Global Land Cover 2000 data set (JRC 2003) with areas of human habitation and infrastructure from the Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project database (CIESIN et al. 2004) removed. We applied a zonal sum procedure to those data to show the amount of forest by ecoregion. These data were derived by The Nature Conservancy, and were displayed in a map published in The Atlas of Global Conservation (Hoekstra et al., University of California Press, 2010). More information at http://nature.org/atlas. Data derived from: Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), International Food...
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Human population density in 2000, by terrestrial ecoregion. We summarized human population density by ecoregion using the Gridded Population of the World database and projections for 2015 (CIESIN et al. 2005). The mean for each ecoregion was extracted using a zonal statistics algorithm. These data were derived by The Nature Conservancy, and were displayed in a map published in The Atlas of Global Conservation (Hoekstra et al., University of California Press, 2010). More information at http://nature.org/atlas. Data derived from: Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University; and Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT). 2005. Gridded Population of the World...
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Percent of ecoregion area covered with desert and aridland habitat. We derived the aridlands map by first developing a raster-based mask of arid climates from the Köppen-Geiger climate classification (Kottek et al. 2006) using ArcInfo GIS software. We applied the mask to the GLC 2000 global land cover, and then extracted sparse vegetation classes. For example, pockets of forested land occurring within Köppen-Geiger arid climate regions were excluded. Areas of human habitation and infrastructure were also removed from the map, leaving only natural desert lands. Finally, we applied a zonal sum procedure to the raster map to calculate the percentage of arid land per ecoregion. These data were derived by The Nature...
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Number of migratory fish species, by freshwater ecoregion. We derived the map of long-distance migrant (LDM) fish—the number of LDM species per ecoregion—from published literature, online databases (NatureServe), and expert inquiries. Potadromous, anadromous, amphidromous, and catadromous fish species were judged to be LDMs if they made regular journeys (i.e., for breeding, dispersal, feeding) of at least a hundred kilometers or more in freshwater. These species were then assigned to ecoregions based on the fish species lists database from Abell et al. (2008). Although we used many resources, two key data sources for the map were the following: Carolsfeld, J., B. Harvey, C. Ross, and A. Baer, eds. 2003. Migratory...
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Number of freshwater fish species, by freshwater ecoregion. The map of freshwater fish species richness—the number of species present in each ecoregion—was generated from a variety of sources by Abell et al. (2008). Only species using freshwater for at least a portion of their life cycles, as identified using the habitat assignments in FishBase, are included. For the United States, NatureServe provided presence/absence data for individual species, coded to eight-digit hydrologic unit codes (HUCs); these HUC occurrences were then translated into ecoregions, and the data were manually cleaned of erroneous occurrences derived from species introductions and problematic records. For all other ecoregions, species lists...
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Seamounts and vents map citation: Kitchingman and Lai 2004, Ramirez-Llodra and Baker 2006. Map data source: Kitchingman, A. and S. Lai. 2004. “Inferences on potential seamount locations from mid-resolution bathymetric data.” In: Morato T, Pauly D (eds) Seamounts: Biodiversity and Fisheries. Fisheries Centre, University of British Colombia, Vancouver, Canada, pp 7-12 Ramirez-Llodra, E. and M.C. Baker. 2006. Data on the location of hydrothermal vents. Biogeography of Chemosynthetic Ecosystems (ChEss) Project (www.noc.soton.ac.uk/chess). Map Technical Notes Locations of seamounts are from (Kitchingman and Lai 2004) and were developed from a global GIS based analysis, which identifies a total of 14,000 seamounts....
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Percent land area formally protected, by terrestrial ecoregion. We derived estimates of protected area coverage from the World Database of Protected Areas (WDPA, UNEP/IUCN 2007) with supplements for the United States (CBI 2006) and Australia (CAPAD 2006). The WDPA is the most comprehensive global catalog of protected areas and includes data about their sizes, locations, and IUCN classifications of management designation. The WDPA was assembled by a broad alliance of organizations that aimed to maintain a freely available, accurate, and current database that is accepted as a global standard by all stakeholders. The distribution of all protected areas was mapped in a Geographic Information System and then summarized...
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Accessibility of natural habitats to humans, by terrestrial ecoregion. The human accessibility map provides an index of the level of effort it would take for a human on foot to access any given square kilometer of nonconverted land from existing infrastructure. We calculated human accessibility from a one-square-kilometer spatial grid of the terrestrial world consisting of a cost surface where the value of each cell was derived from topographic slope, vegetation type, and vegetation density. We developed a second matching spatial grid of infrastructure, depicting roads, railroads, navigable rivers, cities, and towns. Then we calculated a least cost path from each noninfrastructure grid cell to infrastructure grid...
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Proportion of coral bleaching events that were high impact, by marine ecoregion. Data on coral bleaching is derived from ReefBase and represents bleaching from a single year (1998). This was the worst bleaching event on record, linked to an El Niño year. It was also very well monitored, partly because of its unprecedented nature. Bleaching has remained widespread since that time in locations around the world. The data was generously provided by Jamie Oliver from a subset that was prepared for another publication (Oliver et al. 2008), and we have only made minor corrections to errors for the Seychelles in this data set. Bleaching reports in ReefBase were derived from a broad range of sources, but each has been assigned...
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Change in nitrogen flow to the coast since pre-industrial times, by marine ecoregion. The map shows the estimated change in coastal discharge of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) between preindustrial and contemporary times by marine ecoregion. We calculated this change using data from Green et al. (2005), which was developed using land surface runoff models that included agriculture, livestock, human sewage, and atmospheric deposition sources of DIN. The original spatial data set assigned discharge values to coastal pixels, and we summed the value of pixels within each ecoregion for each time period. We then calculated ecoregional values by subtracting preindustrial sums from contemporary values. These data...
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Number of globally threatened marine mammal species, by marine ecoregion. Using the online IUCN resource, the threatened species for each ecoregion were filtered for marine species only. Threatened species refer to those listed by IUCN Red List as Vulnerable, Endangered, or Critically Endangered (www.redlist.org). We downloaded the digital GIS data and summarized it by marine ecoregion to result in the number of threatened species per marine ecoregion. These data were derived by The Nature Conservancy, and were displayed in a map published in The Atlas of Global Conservation (Hoekstra et al., University of California Press, 2010). More information at http://nature.org/atlas. Data derived from: International Union...
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Dominant type of groundwater aquifer, by freshwater ecoregion. We derived the dominant groundwater features from the Groundwater Resources of the World data set, a product of the World-wide Hydrogeological Mapping and Assessment Programme (WHYMAP) (Struckmeir and Richts 2007). The WHYMAP Groundwater feature containing the largest surface area within an ecoregion was deemed the dominant feature. Groundwater classes are equivalent to classes stated in the WHYMAP data set. These data were derived by The Nature Conservancy, and were displayed in a map published in The Atlas of Global Conservation (Hoekstra et al., University of California Press, 2010). More information at http://nature.org/atlas. Data derived from:...
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Number of harmful species that have invaded freshwater habitats, by freshwater ecoregion. The occurrence and ecological impact for freshwater invasive species were compiled in a geographically referenced database according to the methods of Molnar et al. (2008). Information about 550 species was systematically collected from a wide variety of global, regional, national, and subnational data sources. Non-native distributions were documented by freshwater ecoregion. The threat of each species to native biodiversity was scored using the following categories: 4, disrupts entire ecosystem processes with wider abiotic influences; 3, disrupts multiple species, some wider ecosystem function, and/or keystone species or...


map background search result map search result map Seamounts, Vents, and Seeps Salt Marsh Abundance by Marine Ecoregion Population Density, 2000, by Terrestrial Ecoregion Percent Land Area Formally Protected by Terrestrial Ecoregion (2007) Percent Forest Area by Terrestrial Ecoregion Percent Aridland Area by Terrestrial Ecoregion Number of Mammal Species by Terrestrial Ecoregion Number of Globally Threatened Animals by Terrestrial Ecoregion Human Accessibility by Terrestrial Ecoregion Number of Migratory Fish Species by Freshwater Ecoregion Number of Harmful Invasive Species by Freshwater Ecoregion Number of Fish Species by Freshwater Ecoregion Number of Amphibian Species by Freshwater Ecoregion Dominant Groundwater Feature by Freshwater Ecoregion Percent of High-Impact Bleaching Events by Marine Ecoregion Number of Stony Coral Species by Marine Ecoregion Number of Seagrass Species by Marine Ecoregion Number of Threatened Marine Mammal Species by Marine Ecoregion Bottom Trawling and Dredging by Marine Ecoregion Change in Nitrogen Flow by Marine Ecoregion Seamounts, Vents, and Seeps Salt Marsh Abundance by Marine Ecoregion Percent of High-Impact Bleaching Events by Marine Ecoregion Number of Stony Coral Species by Marine Ecoregion Number of Seagrass Species by Marine Ecoregion Number of Threatened Marine Mammal Species by Marine Ecoregion Bottom Trawling and Dredging by Marine Ecoregion Change in Nitrogen Flow by Marine Ecoregion Population Density, 2000, by Terrestrial Ecoregion Percent Land Area Formally Protected by Terrestrial Ecoregion (2007) Percent Forest Area by Terrestrial Ecoregion Percent Aridland Area by Terrestrial Ecoregion Number of Mammal Species by Terrestrial Ecoregion Number of Globally Threatened Animals by Terrestrial Ecoregion Human Accessibility by Terrestrial Ecoregion Number of Migratory Fish Species by Freshwater Ecoregion Number of Harmful Invasive Species by Freshwater Ecoregion Number of Fish Species by Freshwater Ecoregion Number of Amphibian Species by Freshwater Ecoregion Dominant Groundwater Feature by Freshwater Ecoregion