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The aftershock zone of each large (M ≥ 7) earthquake extends throughout the shallows of planet Earth. Most aftershocks cluster near the mainshock rupture, but earthquakes send out shivers in the form of seismic waves, and these temporary distortions are large enough to trigger other earthquakes at global range. The aftershocks that happen at great distance from their mainshock are often superposed onto already seismically active regions, making them difficult to detect and understand. From a hazard perspective we are concerned that this dynamic process might encourage other high magnitude earthquakes, and wonder if a global alarm state is warranted after every large mainshock. From an earthquake process perspective...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Tectonophysics
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The NEIC global earthquake bulletin is called the Preliminary Determination of Epicenters or PDE, and is one of many discrete products in the ANSS Comprehensive Catalog (ComCat). We use the word "Preliminary" for our final bulletin because the Bulletin of the International Seismological Centre is considered to be the final global archive of parametric earthquake data, in other words phase arrival (“pick”) times and amplitudes.
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If the volume of continents has been growing since 4 Ga then the area of the ocean basins must have been shrinking. Therefore, by inferring a constant continental freeboard, in addition to constant continental crustal thicknesses and seawater volume, it is possible to calculate the necessary combinations of increased ridge lengths and spreading rates required to displace the seawater in the larger oceans of the past in order to maintain the constant freeboard. A reasonable choice from the various possibilities is that at 4 Ga ago, the ridge length and spreading rates were ca. 2.5 times greater than the averages of these parameters during the past 200 Ma. By 2.5 Ga ago the ridge length and spreading rate decreased...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Tectonophysics
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Episodic slip on shallow crustal faults can be qualitatively explained by postulating a fault constitutive law that is the superposition of two limiting material responses: (1) strain softening after peak stress during large strain rates, and (2) strength (peak stress) recovery during aging at small strain rates. A single law permits a variety of seismic and aseismic phenomena to occur over a range of space and time scales. Specific cases are determined by the spatial variation of material constants, recent deformation history, crustal rigidity, and remote forcing. ?? 1979.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Tectonophysics
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The U.S. Geological Survey has been operating a network of shallow-borehole tiltmeters in central California since June 1973. At six sites redundant instruments have been installed as a check on data coherency. These include the Sage Ranch, Tres Pinos, New Idria, Aromas, Bear Valley and San Juan Bautista tiltmeter sites. Preliminary results from the comparison of redundant data from the Aromas, Bear Valley and San Juan Bautista sites for periods of eight, three and seven months respectively, suggest that short period tilt signals in the range 5 min < T < 3-5 h and ranging in amplitude from 5 ?? 10-8 to 10-6 rad, but not including step offsets, show excellent agreement on closely spaced instruments. Agreement is...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Tectonophysics
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The event terminating the Cretaceous period and the Mesozoic era caused massive extinctions of flora and fauna worldwide. Theories of the nature of this event can be classed as endogenic (volcanic, climatic, etc.) or exogenic (extraterrestrial causes). Mineralogical evidence from the boundary clays and claystones strongly favor the impact of an extraterrestrial body as the cause of this event. Nonmarine KT boundary claystones are comprised of two separate layers-an upper layer composed of high-angle ejecta material (shocked quartz, altered glass and spinel) and a basal kaolinitic layer containing spherules, clasts, and altered glass, together with some shocked grains. Recognition of this dual-layered nature of the...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Tectonophysics
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On the basis of a preliminary experiment in 1985 (KRISP 85), a seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection survey and a teleseismic tomography experiment were jointly undertaken to study the lithospheric structure of the Kenya rift down to depths of greater than 200 km. This report serves as an introduction to a series of subsequent papers and will focus on the technical description of the seismic surveys of the main KRISP 90 effort. The seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection survey was carried out in a 4-week period in January and February 1990. It consisted of three profiles: one extending along the rift valley from Lake Turkana to Lake Magadi, one crossing the rift at Lake Baringo, and one located on the eastern...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Tectonophysics
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The International Seismological Observing Period (ISOP) is a specific time interval designated for enhanced international cooperation in the collection and dissemination of observatory measurements from the global seismographic network. The primary purpose of the ISOP is to strengthen the international infrastructure that supports current seismological practice and increase the cooperation among nations that operate seismological observatories. Measurements, reported by the existing global network and compiled by agencies such as the International Seismological Centre (ISC), are providing new information about earthquakes and the structure of the Earth of fundamental importance to the Earth sciences. However, these...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Tectonophysics
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The Gorkha earthquake on April 25th, 2015 was a long anticipated, low-angle thrust-faulting event on the shallow décollement between the India and Eurasia plates. We present a detailed multiple-event hypocenter relocation analysis of the Mw 7.8 Gorkha Nepal earthquake sequence, constrained by local seismic stations, and a geodetic rupture model based on InSAR and GPS data. We integrate these observations to place the Gorkha earthquake sequence into a seismotectonic context and evaluate potential earthquake hazard.Major results from this study include (1) a comprehensive catalog of calibrated hypocenters for the Gorkha earthquake sequence; (2) the Gorkha earthquake ruptured a ~ 150 × 60 km patch of the Main Himalayan...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Tectonophysics
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Paleomagnetic data have been obtained from two ophiolite sequences in the northern California Coast Ranges: from Mount Diablo in the San Francisco Bay area and from Potter Valley, north of Clear Lake. The ophiolite exposed at Mount Diablo is part of the late Middle to Late Jurassic Coast Range ophiolite, and that exposed near Potter Valley is Late Jurassic to perhaps Early Cretaceous in age and occurs within the Franciscan assemblage. Data from the sheeted-dike complex at Mount Diablo show these rocks to be strongly overprinted, probably following uplift and erosion of the ophiolite. Samples whose primary remanent magnetization seems to be recovered yield a mean paleomagnetic pole at 30.7??N, 159.5??E with ??95...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Tectonophysics
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Harrat As Sarat forms the second smallest and southernmost of the basalt fields of western Saudi Arabia and is part of a voluminous Red Sea rift-related continental alkali basalt province. The rocks of the As Sarat were emplaced during the first stage of Red Sea rifting and represent the northernmost extension of the Tertiary Trap Series volcanics that occur mainly in the Yemen Arab Republic and Ethiopia. The field consists of up to 580 m of basalt flows, that are intruded by basaltic plugs, necks, minor dikes, and highly evolved peralkaline trachyte intrusions. K-Ar ages indicate that the As Sarat field formed between 31 and 22 Ma and contains an eruption hiatus of one million years that began about 25 Ma ago....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Tectonophysics
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High-resolution seismic reflection profiles from Limo??n Bay, Republic of Panama, were acquired as part of a seismic hazard investigation of the northern Panama Canal region. The seismic profiles image gently west and northwest dipping strata of upper Miocene Gatu??n Formation, unconformably overlain by a thin (<20 m) sequence of Holocene muds. Numerous faults, which have northeast trends where they can be correlated between seismic profiles, break the upper Miocene strata. Some of the faults have normal displacement, but on many faults, the amount and type of displacement cannot be determined. The age of displacement is constrained to be Late Miocene or younger, and regional geologic considerations suggest Pliocene...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Tectonophysics
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The San Francisco Mountain lavas exposed in the upper portion of the southeast slope of Humphreys Peak are composed of three petrographically distinct types: (1) a lower series of hornblende pyroxene andesites; (2) a group of hypersthene dacites; and (3) an upper series of olivine andesites. These rocks have been shown to be related by crystallization differentiation through comparison of groundmass and bulk rock-chemical data. The major and trace elements from rocks representative of the volcanic field form continuous trends, an indication of differentiation rather than separate and discrete magma sources. Xenoliths found in the volcanic field are composed of the proper major and trace element contents to allow...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Tectonophysics
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The seismic profile of the crust of the northern part of the Basin and Range province by its thinness and layering is intermediate between typical continental and oceanic crust and resembles that of marginal ocean basins, especially those with thick sedimentary fill. The geologic history of the Great Basin indicates that it was the site of a succession of marginal ocean basins opening and closing behind volcanic arcs during much of Paleozoic time. A long process of sedimentation and deformation followed throughout the Mesozoic modifying, but possibly not completely transforming the originally oceanic crust to continental crust. In the Cenozoic, after at least 40 m.y. of quiescence and stable conditions, substantial...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Tectonophysics
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ShakeMap is a product of the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program in conjunction with the regional seismic networks. ShakeMaps provide near-real-time maps of ground motion and shaking intensity following significant earthquakes. These maps are used by federal, state, and local organizations, both public and private, for post-earthquake response and recovery, public and scientific information, as well as for preparedness exercises and disaster planning.
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The 25 April 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake produced strong ground motions across an approximately 250 km by 100 km swath in central Nepal. To assist disaster response activities, we modified an existing earthquake-triggered landslide model based on a Newmark sliding block analysis to estimate the extent and intensity of landsliding and landslide dam hazard. Landslide hazard maps were produced using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital topography, peak ground acceleration (PGA) information from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) ShakeMap program, and assumptions about the regional rock strength based on end-member values from previous studies. The instrumental record of seismicity in Nepal is poor, so PGA...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Tectonophysics
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New active-source shallow seismic (shear-wave and acoustic-wave) measurements were obtained at 18 prioritized seismic monitoring station locations in the north San Francisco Bay area to measure site-specific ground motion amplification effects, soil depth, depth to bedrock (Z1.0 Vs=1 km/s), calculate site specific velocity-depth profiles and Vs30, and develop NEHRP site classifications for each location. This study was led by Principal Investigators Jamey Turner, Cooper Brossy, and Daniel O’Connell and field data were acquired by Glendon Adams and Lincoln Steele. Seismic monitoring sites that recorded high PGA values during the M6.0 Napa earthquake, proximal to higher population densities, and sites recommended...
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We present geochronologic and paleomagnetic data from a north-trending quartz diorite intrusion that cuts Archean metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks of the South Pass Greenstone Belt of the Wyoming craton. The quartz diorite was previously thought to be either Archean or Early Proterozoic (?) in age and is cut by north and northeast-trending Proterozoic diabase dikes of uncertain age, for which we also report paleomagnetic data. New U-Pb analyses of baddeleyite and zircon from the quartz diorite yield a concordia upper intercept age of 2170 ?? 8 Ma (95% confidence). An 40Ar/39Ar amphibole date from the same sample yields a similar apparent age of about 2124 ?? 30 Ma (2??), thus confirming that the intrusion is...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Tectonophysics
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Mylonites associated with the Mannin Thrust zone of southwesternmost Connemara formed when the high-grade metamorphic rocks typical of most of the Connemara massif were thrust to the southeast over low metamorphic grade (low greenschist facies?) acid volcanics and volcaniclastic sediments, while being metamorphosed in the epidote-amphibolite facies. Triaxial and biaxial ultrasonic velocity measurements of mylonite specimens from a 240 m borehole have established that there is significant seismic anisotropy up to about 11% when comparing velocities perpendicular and parallel to the foliation. This would ultimately lead to a reflection coefficient of about 0.02 when comparing the mean "isotropic" seismic velocity...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Tectonophysics
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Palaeomagnetic studies were carried out in Permian red beds of the Balaton Highlands, the Mecsek Mountains and the Bu??kk Mountains of Hungary. Statistically well defined directions were obtained from six localities in the Balaton Highlands and two localities in the Mecsek Mountains. No meaningful results were obtained from the Bu??kk Mountains. Three magnetic components were identified from red beds of the Balaton Highlands: (1) in haematite with a very high unblocking temperature (700??C), interpreted as a Permian magnetization (Dc= 79??, Ic=-11??, k = 24, ??95 = 13.6 ??), in six samples from three beds in a single locality (2) a secondary but ancient component residing mainly inmaghemite (D = 314??, I = 49??,...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Tectonophysics