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The seemingly irresistible growth of motorised transport and its environmental effects have led the NRP to also put mobility and transport (M & T) on its agenda. NRP questions are focused on psychosocial factors and mechanisms underlying the popularity of motorised transport, and on technical as well as behavioural measures and strategies to reduce global air pollution stemming from mobility and the use of motor vehicles. In Phase 1 of the programme, five NRP-funded Mssss & T projects have been conducted. Together with one or two related projects, these will be briefly summarised and commented upon. General observations, conclusions and some suggestions will be provided at the end of this paper.
Studies conducted since the late 1970s have estimated the net energy value (NEV) of corn ethanol. However, variations in data and assumptions used among the studies have resulted in a wide range of estimates. This study identifies the factors causing this wide variation and develops a more consistent estimate. We conclude that the NEV of corn ethanol has been rising over time due to technological advances in ethanol conversion and increased efficiency in farm production. We show that corn ethanol is energy efficient as indicated by an energy output:input ratio of 1.34.
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This dataset was last updated 02/2017. This version includes a new tidal restrictions metric that assesses the effect of undersized culverts and bridges on tidal regime.The previous version (3.1) was updated on 05/2016 by incorporating a revised version of the land cover classification, DSLland Version 3.1, developed by UMass, which included the addition of The Nature Conservancy’s Northeast lakes and ponds classification.This dataset depicts the ecological integrity of locations (represented by 30 m grid cells) throughout the northeastern United States based on environmental conditions existing in approximately 2010. Ecological integrity is defined as the ability of an area (e.g., local site or landscape) to sustain...
By replacing fossil fuels bioenergy has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but indirect effects might partly or even completely eliminate this benefit. Production of bio-energy products, such as biofuels for transport, causes several indirect effects through their interactions with the global economic and physical systems. Indirect land-use change leads to GHG emissions – in some cases in the same order of magnitude as the fossil emissions – and loss of nature, but there are other relevant indirect effects as well. Intensification of agricultural production is another indirect effect and could be stimulated more to minimise the undesirable land conversion. However, intensification through increased...
Revegetation and cattle production are major objectives in the reclamation plan for mine tailings at the Highland Valley Copper mine in Canada. Residual molybdenum (Mo) in the tailings is imbibed by vegetation and forages accumulate up to 400 ppm Mo at the Highmont tailings pond. Grazing studies with cattle determined the feasibility of utilising the site for livestock production and published results are reviewed. Clinical evaluations (1999?2001) revealed signs of lameness, diarrhoea and hair coat depigmentation in cows but they recovered without treatment. Supplement trials (2002 ? 2004) demonstrated the efficacy of copper (Cu) sulphate for the alleviation of clinical disorders. Dietary Mo was rapidly eliminated...
Global energy demand is expected to increase steeply, creating an urgent need to evolve a judicious global energy policy, exploiting the potential of all available energy resources, including nuclear energy. With increasing awareness of environmental issues, nuclear energy is expected to play an important role on the energy scenario in the coming decades. The immediate thrust in the science and technology of nuclear materials is to realize a robust reactor technology with associated fuel cycle and ensure the cost competitiveness of nuclear power and to extend the service life of reactors to 100 years. Accordingly, the present-generation materials need to be modified to meet the demands of prolonged exposure to irradiation...
We present the results of a number of PV-grid matching simulations performed using hourly generation data from the Israel Electric Corporation (IEC) for the year 2006, together with corresponding meteorological data from Sede Boqer in the Negev Desert. The principal results of this investigation are: (1) the effective flexibility factor (ff) of the IEC grid was close to ff=0.65, but with a different plant operating strategy, ff could have been considerably higher; (2) for ff=0.65, the largest no-dump PV system could have provided only 2.7% of the annual demand, but for higher flexibilities - up to ff=1 - the percentage penetration could be as high as 17.4%; (3) considerable improvement in penetration can result...
In June 2008, 303,000 L of hydrofracturing fl uid from a natural gas well were applied to a 0.20-ha area of mixed hardwood forest on the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia. During application, severe damage and mortality of ground vegetation was observed, followed about 10 d later by premature leaf drop by the overstory trees. Two years after fl uid application, 56% of the trees within the fl uid application area were dead. Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. was the tree species with the highest mortality, and Acer rubrum L. was the least aff ected, although all tree species present on the site showed damage symptoms and mortality. Surface soils (0–10 cm) were sampled in July and October 2008, June and October 2009,...
Two field studies revealed large differences among various subgroups in the population of car drivers. Private drivers, commuters, and business drivers differed strongly with respect to current decisions and behaviour which affect CO2 emissions, and with respect to their sensitivity to various policy instruments. Several promising policy targets were identified" combinations of user groups and behaviours where substantial CO2 reduction may be achieved. The sensitivity of different car user groups to various policy measures showed whether and how desired behavioral changes may be realised.
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This dataset depicts the ecological integrity of locations (represented by 30 m grid cells) throughout the northeastern United States based on environmental conditions existing in approximately 2010 for aquatic systems.The values for this dataset were extracted from the Index of Ecological Integrity, Region-wide, Version 3.2 for all aquatic systems. Updated 09/2017. The metadata for the original dataset is as follows:This dataset was last updated 02/2017. This version includes a new tidal restrictions metric that assesses the effect of undersized culverts and bridges on tidal regime. The previous version (3.1) was updated on 05/2016 by incorporating a revised version of the land cover classification, DSLland Version...
To address the constantly deteriorating situation of energy supply, the environment, and energy security, biodiesel is considered to be the most important biofuel of the future. However, the high cost of biodiesel inhibits it to become a viable alternative of petroleum-based fuel. As global demand for food is expected to double in next 50 years, food-based biodiesel appears to be an unwise choice. Therefore, biodiesel from lignocellulosic biowastes seems to be an attractive and promising alternative to crude oil because of its superior environmental benefits, economical competitiveness, and resource sustainability. More attention should be paid to microbial oil technology, as it needs virtually no additional farmland...
Biofuels world production has increased sharply in recent years. Oil reserves depletion, the oil high price and the confidence in biofuels “carbon neutrality” are the main causes of this phenomenon. However, claims related to the negative consequences of biofuel programs are frequent; mainly those related to the biofuels/food competition and sustainability. This paper aims to contribute for the development of a framework for sustainability indicators as a tool for performance assessment. The most used indicators to measure the biofuels sustainability are: Life Cycle Energy Balance (LCEB), quantity of fossil energy substituted per hectare, co-product energy allocation, life cycle carbon balance and changes in soil...
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This dataset was developed as part of the Designing Sustainble Landscapes project led by Professor Kevin McGarigal of UMass Amherst and sponsored by the North Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative (www.northatlanticlcc.org); for more information about the entire project see: http://www.umass.edu/landeco/research/dsl/dsl.htmlThis dataset was last updated 02/2017. The revised version incorporates the addition of a simplified version of The Nature Conservancy's Northeast lakes and ponds classification, visit https://www.conservationgateway.org/ConservationByGeography/NorthAmerica/UnitedStates/edc/reportsdata/freshwater/Pages/Northeast-Lakes.aspx for more details.This dataset represents terrestrial and wetland...
We examined bird and bat mortality at a new 89-turbine windfarm constructed in an environmentally sensitive area in north-central Iowa. The windfarm became operational in November 2001. It is located in cropland between three Wildlife Management Areas (WMA's) with historically high bird use. In the past, migrant and resident waterfowl, shorebirds, raptors, and songbirds moved between the WMA's through the area now occupied by the windfarm. Studies of bird collision mortality in California and elsewhere raised concerns about the possibility of mortalities in this area. From April 15, 2003 and December 15, 2003 we searched for dead animals under 26 randomly selected turbines. Six 76.2 m by 3.0 m transects were maintained...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Building, energy, future, sustainable
The cleanliness of hydrogen and the efficiency of fuel cells taken together offer an appealing alternative to fossil fuels. Implementing hydrogen-powered fuel cells on a significant scale, however, requires major advances in hydrogen production, storage, and use. Splitting water renewably offers the most plentiful and climate-friendly source of hydrogen and can be achieved through electrolytic, photochemical, or biological means. Whereas presently available hydride compounds cannot easily satisfy the competing requirements for on-board storage of hydrogen for transportation, nanoscience offers promising new approaches to this challenge. Fuel cells offer potentially efficient production of electricity for transportation...
Two field studies revealed large differences among various subgroups in the population of car drivers. Private drivers, commuters, and business drivers differed strongly with respect to current decisions and behaviour which affect CO2 emissions, and with respect to their sensitivity to various policy instruments. Several promising policy targets were identified" combinations of user groups and behaviours where substantial CO2 reduction may be achieved. The sensitivity of different car user groups to various policy measures showed whether and how desired behavioral changes may be realised.
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This dataset was last updated 05/2016. This version was updated using DSLland Version 3.1. The update to DSLland Version 3.1 from Version 3.0 is the addition of a lakes and ponds classification.This dataset depicts the ecological integrity of locations (represented by 30 m grid cells) throughout New York State based on environmental conditions existing in approximately 2010. Ecological integrity is defined as the ability of an area (e.g., local site or landscape) to sustain important ecological functions over the long term. In particular, the functions include the long-term ability to support biodiversity and the ecosystem processes necessary to sustain biodiversity. The Index of Ecological Integrity (IEI) is expressed...


map background search result map search result map Terrestrial and Aquatic Habitat Map (DSLland), Version 3.1, Northeast U.S. Aquatic Index of Ecological Integrity, Region-wide, Version 3.2, Northeast U.S. Index of Ecological Integrity, New York State Index of Ecological Integrity, Stratified by Ecosystem, Region-wide, Version 3.2, Northeast U.S. Index of Ecological Integrity, New York State Terrestrial and Aquatic Habitat Map (DSLland), Version 3.1, Northeast U.S. Aquatic Index of Ecological Integrity, Region-wide, Version 3.2, Northeast U.S. Index of Ecological Integrity, Stratified by Ecosystem, Region-wide, Version 3.2, Northeast U.S.