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Long-term greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies for the Netherlands were studied, using a MARKAL energy model. The EMS study identifies longterm technological options for greenhouse gas emission reduction and assesses their cost-effectiveness, taking interactions between technologies into account. The project consisted of three parts: carbon dioxyde (CO 2) emission reduction in the energy system, integrated reduction of greenhouse gases from the energy system with consideration of upstream emissions and CO 2 reduction in the integrated energy and materials system. 500 energy technologies were assessed for their reduction potential. Significant emission reduction seems possible, but it takes an array of measures...
Research performed at the AB-DLO and the Free University was intended to quantify the effects of a doubled CO2 concentration on some key agronomic species and grasslands. A set of physiological and morphological processes was studied and related to above- and below ground cycling of carbon. The research was based on experiments and simulation studies at the level of plant, crop and soil in laboratory facilities and semi-field conditions with controlled CO2 supply. Agricultural crops were grown in "Open Top Chambers" or greenhouses and grasses in transparent tunnels made of Lexan. Soil processes and root respiration were studied in the Wageningen Rhizolab. Photosynthesis and assimilate partitioning were measured...
In a field experiment we attempted to stimulate car users to come to a more selective use of their vehicle by means of providing information and feedback about different negative consequences of their car use. Attitude change was observed but the experimental treatments did not lead to behavioural changes. Attempts to influence car use arouse psychological resistance. Therefore, effects opposite to those intended occurred. We discuss the possible implications of the results for policymaking.
The opportunities for long term energy efficiency improvement in industry have been studied. Three studies are described. The first study was directed at making a preliminary survey of technologies that might reduce the end-use demand of industrial processes on the long term. The second study focused on the development of a methodology to make a more profound analysis of the long term potential. The third study describes a database for energy efficient technologies. It is concluded that, after technologies that are currently technically feasible have been implemented, there still exists a considerable (new) potential for improvement.
The article argues that the currently dominant idea of material welfare is at odds with a lifestyle that does justice to basic human values. Measurement of welfare needs to attach importance to a good environment. With regard to the subjective counterpart: social research on the experience of welfare - the quality of life - in various Western countries shows clearly that intangible values are very important in the lives of most people. In a process of globalization of economy and cultural supplies, it will be important to strengthen democratic concern with the environmental question. The legitimation of political authority in (inter)national negotiations will depend on the attention paid to welfare and quality of...
The main properties of a phytoclimatic model are explained. It is a technique for theoretic simulation but a field work verification is essential. The methodology involves the transformation of a territory's general phytoclimate data into particular phytoclimate estimates. We are dealing with a simple mathematical climate-soil-relief-vegetation model offering the possibility of predicting changes in vegetation liable to occur at any point in the Iberian peninsula's territory, when the climate data values of a site change as compared with data currently estimated. It consequently enables both alterations and sensitivity of potential plant communities to possible climate changes to be detected and predicted at a certain...
This paper presents the links between the climate model IMAGE 2 and the economic model WORLD SCAN, which are set up to obtain an integrated scenario instrument for comprehensive and consistent climate-economy scenarios. The links are made with respect to energy (in WORLD SCAN) and agriculture (in IMAGE 2), thus providing a consistent linkage with feedbacks running both ways.
The contribution of households to CO 2 production is still increasing. To alter patterns of energy consumption for example with respect to commuter traffic, using the freezer, and warming the house, changing life styles related to domestic energy consumption is considered. In our study, we have operationalized life style as means-end chains, that link perceived benefits of a particular behavior to basic values that people pursue. In this paper, preliminary results are presented of the study that is aimed at empirically establishing the feasibility of the concept of life style in relation to domestic energy consumption.
To investigate the potential response of soils to climatic change, measurements of soil physical and chemical properties were carried out during a year in a mountain zone in Alicante (Spain), along an altitudinal and climatological gradient. Hydrological properties (infiltration runoff and sediment concentration) were measured under winter and summer conditions. Chemical and physical soil properties were analyzed for reference soil profiles along the transect. The erosional response of the soils as well as soil properties like organic matter and CEC are found to be under the direct influence of the climate, and as a result they have to be considered as important factors in the desertification processes.