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Soil compaction from human trampling, biking, and off-road motor vehicle traffic was quantitatively investigated in a blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) shrubland in Kyle Canyon of the Spring Mountains in southern Nevada. A significant difference was detected in soil compaction, bulk density, and percent pore space at a particular frequency of visits in each of 4 disturbance types. On average a single vehicle pass was equivalent to 10 human footprints. Ten and 100 footprints were equivalent to 1 motorcycle pass and 10 vehicle passes, respectively. Soil compaction is a product of increased bulk density and decreased pore space. The degree of soil compaction is a function of disturbance type and visit frequency when...
Variable densities of an invasive species may represent variation in invasion resistance, due to variation in resource availability. This study determined whether low- and high-density cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) patches within a shadscale-bunchgrass community of western Utah, USA, can be explained by variation in resource availability. It also explored the possible role of seed limitation and enemy pressure on invasion patterns. Two parallel field experiments were conducted:(1) increasing resources within low-density cheatgrass patches and, conversely (2) reducing resources within high-density cheatgrass patches. Treatments were applied at three life stages separately and across all stages. In low-density cheatgrass...