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Summary Non-point nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) pollution from agriculture has increasingly received more public attention. In this study, NO3–N, dissolved P (DP) and particulate P (PP) concentrations and loads were investigated for four sub-basins (labeled 1–4 going up the watershed) within a mixed land use watershed (39.5 ha) in the Appalachian Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province. The hot moments of NO3–N concentration and load occurred in base flow and during the non-growing season. Great and temporally variable DP and PP concentrations were observed in storm flow. The hot moments of DP concentration and load were in storm flow from May to December and from September to Nov, respectively, while the hot...
Spatial and temporal patterns of variability in spring onset are identified across western North America using a spring index (SI) model based on weather station minimum and maximum temperatures (Tmin and Tmax, respectively). Principal component analysis shows that two significant and independent patterns explain roughly half of the total variance in the timing of spring onset from 1920 to 2005. However, these patterns of spring onset do not appear to be linear responses to the primary modes of variability in the Northern Hemisphere: the Pacific–North American pattern (PNA) and the northern annular mode (NAM). Instead, over the period when reanalysis data and the spring index model overlap (1950–2005), the patterns...