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This paper presents the strategy of the European Union in the field of energy and climate change. At the heart of the package are three commitments to be met by 2020: to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 20%, to ensure that 20% of final energy consumption is met with renewable sources, and to raise energy efficiency by 20%. This strategy is based on the scientific consensus drawn by the International Panel for Climate Change, and implements the EU political strategy to limit the anthropogenic temperature rise to no more than 2 °C. A Directive for the geological storage of CO2 is another integral part of the package. This should enable the development and subsequent deployment of zero emission power plants....
Regional economic impact assessment (REIA) and social impact assessment (SIA) are methodologically close, since REIA provides predictions of change in employment both directly and indirectly resulting from a project, thereby giving some indication of future population changes, derived demand for social services and infrastructure, and the likely regional social mix. There are, however, a number of theoretical difficulties with conventional REIAs. As extrapolations they normally avoid discussion of processes of structural change, which could result in substantial changes within the time horizon of a project. Another issue is the justification for including secondary project impacts in assessing a project's worth....
We tested the recolonization of the phytobenthic community in the tailwaters of Glen Canyon Dam following long- and short-term experimentally induced desiccation. The response of Cladophora glomerata, Oscillatoria spp., miscellaneous phytobenthos species and periphyton was studied over 18 weeks using three treatments: (1) undisturbed control cobbles from the submerged zone; (2) cobbles desiccated and replaced into the submerged zone; and (3) cobbles desiccated and replaced into the varial zone. Periphyton density and compositional response resulting from these treatments were also examined. Desiccation treatments were significantly different in biomass from controls throughout the study. The biomass of desiccated...
Addressing energy poverty rather than energy equity conveniently evades the problem of the gap in energy consumption per capita in the developed and developing world. For energy security policies to adequately address energy poverty it requires a widening of scope from national to global. This is a comment to the forthcoming presentation of IEA's proposition for a new architecture for financing universal modern energy access to be presented at the conference ‘Energy for all—Financing access for the poor’ held in Oslo in October 2011.
Noise exposure is known to cause hearing loss and a variety of disturbances, such as annoyance, hypertension and loss of sleep. It is generally accepted that these situations are caused by the acoustical events processed by the auditory system. However, there are acoustical events that are not necessarily processed by the auditory system, but that nevertheless cause harm. Infrasound and low frequency noise (ILFN, <500Hz) are acoustical phenomena that can impact the human body causing irreversible organic damage to the organism, but that do not cause classical hearing impairment. Acoustical environments are normally composed of all types of acoustical events: those that are processed by the auditory system, and those...
In many industrial countries, road transportation accounts for a significant portion of the country’s energy consumption. In developing countries, the use of energy for transportation is on the rise. The recent increase in petroleum prices, expanding world economic prosperity, the probable peaking of conventional petroleum production in the coming decades, and concerns about global climate changes require efforts to increase the efficiency of the use of, and develop alternatives for, petroleum-based fuels used in road transportation. The energy efficiency of a vehicle could be improved in several ways: lightweighting the vehicle structure and powertrain using advanced materials and designs, improving the efficiency...
This paper discusses risk management, contracting, and bidding for a wind power producer. A majority of the wind power in the United States is sold on long-term power purchase agreements, which hedge the wind power producer against future price risks. However, a significant amount is sold as merchant power and therefore is exposed to fluctuations in future electricity prices (day-ahead and real-time) and potential imbalance penalties. Wind power forecasting can serve as a tool to increase the profit and reduce the risk from participating in the wholesale electricity market. We propose a methodology to derive optimal day-ahead bids for a wind power producer under uncertainty in realized wind power and market prices....
A more sustainable energy system will alter the current patterns of electricity demand and generation. This means technical, commercial and regulatory change for electricity network systems such as distribution networks. This paper traces the links in Great Britain between changes in energy policy since privatisation, changes in the objectives of the electricity regulator and changes in the objectives of the distribution networks and their owners, the distribution network operators (DNOs). The paper identifies tensions in regulatory policy and suggests reforms to the regulatory framework to support a lower-carbon future. DNOs are licensed regional infrastructure providers. In addition to their network services,...
This paper discusses risk management, contracting, and bidding for a wind power producer. A majority of the wind power in the United States is sold on long-term power purchase agreements, which hedge the wind power producer against future price risks. However, a significant amount is sold as merchant power and therefore is exposed to fluctuations in future electricity prices (day-ahead and real-time) and potential imbalance penalties. Wind power forecasting can serve as a tool to increase the profit and reduce the risk from participating in the wholesale electricity market. We propose a methodology to derive optimal day-ahead bids for a wind power producer under uncertainty in realized wind power and market prices....
The purpose of the pilot project is to trial different methods and vendors of wind power forecasting to determine the best approach to forecasting wind power in Alberta in the future. Three vendors were chosen with global forecasting experience; AWS Truewind (New York), energy & meteo systems (Germany), and WEPROG (Denmark). Each vendor will forecast for 12 geographically dispersed wind power facilities for a year (May 07 to May 08) providing a forecast covering the next 48 hours refreshed hourly. ORTECH Power was chosen to perform the quantitative analysis of the results analyzing methods, timeframes and geographical locations. Phoenix Engineering was chosen to collect all the necessary meteorological data required...
Riparian ecosystems are vital components of aridlands within the southwestern United States. Historically, surface flows influenced population dynamics of native riparian trees. Many southwestern streams has been altered by regulation, however, and will be further affected by greenhouse warming. Our analysis of stream gage data revealed that decreases in volume of annual discharge and mean peak discharge and a shift to earlier peak discharge will occur in the Southern Rockies region of Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. These changes will likely decrease rates of reproduction and survival of cottonwood (Populus fremontii and Populus deltoides ssp. wislizenii), Goodding’s willow (Salix gooddingii), and boxelder (Acer...
Regional systems, increased competition, and environmental imperatives are forcing a reallocation of state and federal regulatory responsibilities for the US electric power sector. The great extent of regional diversity in the sector raises a policy relevant empirical question. Is this diversity due to choice or circumstance? This paper finds circumstance to be a more significant determinant of fundamental performance than choice, but also finds evidence that decisions at the margin reflect the diverse preferences of regional policies. This suggests a continued role for (more responsive) state level regulation in order to satisfy diverse preferences. Uncertainty about the optimal endpoint of restructuring reinforces...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Electricity, Federalism, Regulation
Noise exposure is known to cause hearing loss and a variety of disturbances, such as annoyance, hypertension and loss of sleep. It is generally accepted that these situations are caused by the acoustical events processed by the auditory system. However, there are acoustical events that are not necessarily processed by the auditory system, but that nevertheless cause harm. Infrasound and low frequency noise (ILFN, <500Hz) are acoustical phenomena that can impact the human body causing irreversible organic damage to the organism, but that do not cause classical hearing impairment. Acoustical environments are normally composed of all types of acoustical events: those that are processed by the auditory system, and those...
The success of carbon capture, storage and sequestration as a greenhouse gas mitigation strategy will be, in part, dependent on the regulatory framework used to govern its implementation. Creating a science-based regulatory framework that is designed with enough flexibility to encourage greenhouse gas offset activity, effective means of measuring the costs of taking action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and ample protection for human and ecosystem health may prove challenging. For the purposes of this paper we will assume that there is an existing incentive to capture, store and sequester carbon and focus on how to regulate the process. Accounting practices and precursory crediting rules for biological sinks...
In this paper, we derive a simultaneous system of equations which aims at analysing the uranium supply and demand. In addition to reviewing and updating previous studies dealing with the uranium market analysis, in particular Amavilah (1995), the contribution of the paper lies in putting attention to some questions which are still either controversial or unanswered. They are especially related to the controversial hypothesis of the interdependence between uranium market and other commodities markets, both, with respect to the demand side, i.e. oil and coal markets, and the supply side, i.e. gold market. The paper also casts lights on electricity and uranium price effects on uranium demand as well as on the simultaneous...
The purpose of the pilot project is to trial different methods and vendors of wind power forecasting to determine the best approach to forecasting wind power in Alberta in the future. Three vendors were chosen with global forecasting experience; AWS Truewind (New York), energy & meteo systems (Germany), and WEPROG (Denmark). Each vendor will forecast for 12 geographically dispersed wind power facilities for a year (May 07 to May 08) providing a forecast covering the next 48 hours refreshed hourly. ORTECH Power was chosen to perform the quantitative analysis of the results analyzing methods, timeframes and geographical locations. Phoenix Engineering was chosen to collect all the necessary meteorological data required...
Regional economic impact assessment (REIA) and social impact assessment (SIA) are methodologically close, since REIA provides predictions of change in employment both directly and indirectly resulting from a project, thereby giving some indication of future population changes, derived demand for social services and infrastructure, and the likely regional social mix. There are, however, a number of theoretical difficulties with conventional REIAs. As extrapolations they normally avoid discussion of processes of structural change, which could result in substantial changes within the time horizon of a project. Another issue is the justification for including secondary project impacts in assessing a project's worth....


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