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Mangroves are species of halophytic intertidal trees and shrubs derived from tropical genera and are likely delimited in latitudinal range by varying sensitivity to cold. There is now sufficient evidence that mangrove species have proliferated at or near their poleward limits on at least five continents over the past half century, at the expense of salt marsh. Avicennia is the most cold-tolerant genus worldwide, and is the subject of most of the observed changes. Avicennia germinans has extended in range along the USA Atlantic coast and expanded into salt marsh as a consequence of lower frost frequency and intensity in the southern USA. The genus has also expanded into salt marsh at its southern limit in Peru,...
Used first paragraph of article as the abstract: We collected an adult gizzard shad (Doro- soma cepedianum) from the San Juan River just upstream of Lake Powell, Utah, on 6 June 2000. This represents the first documented occurrence of the species in the Colorado River or its tributaries. The adult male (35 cm TL, 470 g) was taken by trammel net from a small (0.5 ha), shallow (<2 m) backwater along with several other fish that included 3 endan- gered razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus). The specimen is stored at the Museum of Southwestern Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (curation number 49122). Published in Western North American Naturalist, volume 64, issue 1, on pages 135 - 136, in 2004.
Piñon–juniper is a major vegetation type in western North America. Effective management of these ecosystems has been hindered by inadequate understanding of 1) the variability in ecosystem structure and ecological processes that exists among the diverse combinations of piñons, junipers, and associated shrubs, herbs, and soil organisms; 2) the prehistoric and historic disturbance regimes; and 3) the mechanisms driving changes in vegetation structure and composition during the past 150 yr. This article summarizes what we know (and don't know) about three fundamentally different kinds of piñon–juniper vegetation. Persistent woodlands are found where local soils, climate, and disturbance regimes are favorable...
Abstract (from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2745.12571/full): 1.Changing winter climate extremes are expected to result in the poleward migration of mangrove forests at the expense of salt marshes. Although mangroves and marshes are both highly valued ecosystems, the ecological implications of mangrove expansion have not been fully investigated. 2.Here we examined the effects of mangrove expansion on below-ground properties related to peat development and carbon storage. We investigated plant-soil interactions in marshes and across mangrove forest structural gradients in three locations in the northern Gulf of Mexico (USA). We compared our results to those from terrestrial grasslands where the...