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This study evaluates the environmental impact of the cement production and its variations between different cement plants, using Life Cycle Impact Assessment. For that purpose, details of the cement production processes are investigated in order to show the respective part of raw materials preparation and clinker production using environmental impacts calculated with CML01 indicators. For the kiln emission data, a European pollutant emission register for French intensive industries is used to quantify the variability of indicators between cement plants. For the CML01 indicators that are controlled by kiln emissions, some of them (i.e. global warming, photochemical oxidation) show variations between cement plants...
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This is a dynamic service of the Surface Management Agency (SMA) Geographic Information System (GIS) dataset. The service depicts Federal land for the United States and classifies this land by its active Federal surface managing agency below the scale scheme level 14 (~1:36K) for efficiency. The SMA feature class currently covers all of the BLM Western State Offices including Alaska. The SMA data contained in this dataset are extracted from Federal land status records. The official Federal land status records of the appropriate surface land managing agency should be consulted concerning ownership details including interest in the federal subsurface mineral estate. The GIS data contained in this dataset depict the...
This paper's objective is to apply Intervention Mapping, a planning process for the systematic development of theory- and evidence-based health promotion interventions, to the development of interventions to promote energy conservation behavior. Intervention Mapping (IM) consists of six steps: needs assessment, program objectives, methods and applications, program development, planning for program implementation, and planning for program evaluation. Examples from the energy conservation field are provided to illustrate the activities associated with these steps. It is concluded that applying IM in the energy conservation field may help the development of effective behavior change interventions, and thus develop...
One of the highest priorities in carbon sequestration science is the development of techniques for CO2 separation and capture, because it is expected to account for the majority of the total cost ( 75%). The most common currently used method of CO2 separation is reversible chemical absorption using monoethanolamine (MEA) solvent. In the current study, solvent degradation from this technique was studied using degraded MEA samples from the IMC Chemicals Facility in Trona, California. A major pathway to solvent degradation that had not been previously observed in laboratory experiments has been identified. This pathway, which is initiated by oxidation of the solvent, is a much more significant source of solvent degradation...
We present the results of a number of PV-grid matching simulations performed using hourly generation data from the Israel Electric Corporation (IEC) for the year 2006, together with corresponding meteorological data from Sede Boqer in the Negev Desert. The principal results of this investigation are: (1) the effective flexibility factor (ff) of the IEC grid was close to ff=0.65, but with a different plant operating strategy, ff could have been considerably higher; (2) for ff=0.65, the largest no-dump PV system could have provided only 2.7% of the annual demand, but for higher flexibilities - up to ff=1 - the percentage penetration could be as high as 17.4%; (3) considerable improvement in penetration can result...
It is now widely recognized that effective communication and demand-side policies for alternative energy require sound knowledge of preferences and determinants of demand of the public and consumers. To date, public attitudes towards new transport technologies have been studied under very different conceptual frameworks. This paper gives an overview of the various conceptual frameworks and methodologies used, where four main approaches can be distinguished: general attitudinal surveys, risk perception studies, non-market economic valuation studies, and other approaches such as those based on semiotic theory. We then review the findings of the recent literature on acceptance, attitudes and preferences for hydrogen...
Electric power transmission lines have recently met a very significant amount of public opposition. The source of such opposition varies from case to case, and is often hard to identify. Stated objections have included land use conflicts, noise created by the lines, aesthetic concerns, and fears of health and safety threats. Despite the sometimes enormous costs and long delays caused by strong opposition to transmission line siting and construction, both utilities and governmental regulators seem baffled at why the public objects so vehemently. At the same time, opponents are often equally baffled at why their objections seem to go unheeded. As a step toward developing satisfactory solutions to the conflict, this...
This paper distinguishes between Social Impact Assessment (S1A) and the Public Involvement (PI) process and makes a case for PI as an integral part of SlA. PI is seen as activity within the SIA process that provides the social impact assessor with a means to obtain quantitative information regarding social impact assessment variables. In North America during the 1970s SIA began to evolve both separately and as a component of environmental impact assessments. However, the utilization and implementation of SIA procedures have moved forward in an uneven manner among federal agencies. Furthermore, the practice of SIA at the federal or ministerial level has been hindered by the unfortunate equating of SlA with public...
During the last ten years environmental quality and energy have emerged as important national issues right along with the economy. The central proposition appears to be that environmental concerns are inversely related to concern about energy and the economy. The common assumptions about public perception of the trade-offs between environmental quality, economic growth, and energy production are shown to be invalid. In any event it is unlikely that public policy makers will find themselves strongly pulled by a highly polarized public.
Abstract: Wetlands serve critical functions including natural flood control and providing wildlife habitat, yet despite these values they remain highly threatened systems. Here we present a landscape-scale geospatial assessment of wetlands in Wyoming. Areas containing high densities of wetlands were identified and mapped, and wetland complexes were quantified as a function of their biological diversity, protection status, susceptibility to climate change, and proximity to sources of impairment. Our results indicate there are 280591 wetlands in Wyoming, totaling 371758 surface hectares, and 222 wetland complexes. The majority (67%) of wetlands are classified as temporary. Low elevation wetland complexes are the least...
Concern regarding the effect of energy development on greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) is increasing as the search for fossil fuel intensifies. Sage-grouse may be especially sensitive to energy development because they require large, diverse areas of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitat to complete their life cycle. Additionally, the network of pipelines, roads, and wells required by energy development may fragment sagebrush habitat isolating populations and contributing to genetic drift, inbreeding, local extinction, or rapid divergence. Seep Ridge, located in northeastern Utah, is one area where sage-grouse habitat and energy development plans overlap. Approved leases call for the construction of...
Improving energy and resource use in US agriculture begins with the soil. Healthy soils improve air and water quality, increase land productivity, help resist the effects of drought and floods, improve energy efficiency and enhance the ability to mitigate climate change. In 1993, the US Board on Agriculture concluded that national policy should seek to: conserve and enhance soil quality as a fundamental first step to improve the environment; increase the efficiency of nutrient, pesticide and irrigation use in farming systems; increase the resistance of farming systems to erosion and runoff; and make greater use of field and landscape buffer zones, all delivered through farm system management plans. Despite their...
Bedded trona (Na2CO=-NaHCO=.214,0) in the lacustrine Green River Formation of Eocene age in the Green River Basin, southwest Wyomin~ constitutes the largest known resource of natural sodium carbonate in the world, in this study, 116 gigatons (Gt) of trona ore are estimated to be present in 22 beds, ranging from 1.2 to 11 meters (m) in thickness. Of this total, 69 Gt of trona ore are estimated to be in beds containing less than 2 percent halite and 47 Gt in beds containing 2 or more percent halite. These 22 beds underlie areas of about 130 to more than 2,000 km: at depths ranging from about 200 m to more than 900 m below the surface. The total resource of trona ore in the basin for which drilling Information is available...
Bedded trona (Na2CO=-NaHCO=.214,0) in the lacustrine Green River Formation of Eocene age in the Green River Basin, southwest Wyomin~ constitutes the largest known resource of natural sodium carbonate in the world, in this study, 116 gigatons (Gt) of trona ore are estimated to be present in 22 beds, ranging from 1.2 to 11 meters (m) in thickness. Of this total, 69 Gt of trona ore are estimated to be in beds containing less than 2 percent halite and 47 Gt in beds containing 2 or more percent halite. These 22 beds underlie areas of about 130 to more than 2,000 km: at depths ranging from about 200 m to more than 900 m below the surface. The total resource of trona ore in the basin for which drilling Information is available...
It is now widely recognized that effective communication and demand-side policies for alternative energy require sound knowledge of preferences and determinants of demand of the public and consumers. To date, public attitudes towards new transport technologies have been studied under very different conceptual frameworks. This paper gives an overview of the various conceptual frameworks and methodologies used, where four main approaches can be distinguished: general attitudinal surveys, risk perception studies, non-market economic valuation studies, and other approaches such as those based on semiotic theory. We then review the findings of the recent literature on acceptance, attitudes and preferences for hydrogen...
Concern is growing across the U.S. among land managers who are seeing increasing numbers of farmers not renewing contracts to keep marginal lands enrolled in the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP). Driving this trend in agricultural land use change is a trend in the development of ethanol production techniques and initiatives that would use ethanol as a fuel source to help achieve energy independence. In Pennsylvania many CRP/CREP lands have a subsoil horizon known as a fragipan, which is partly responsible for drainage/rooting problems resulting in poor crop yields. Production of biofuels on such lands poses risks of crop...
This study deals with modeling and analyzing the performance of greenhouses from the power plant through the heating system to the greenhouse envelope using exergy analysis method, the so-called low exergy or LowEx approach, which has been and still being successfully used in sustainable buildings design, for the first time to the best of the author’s knowledge. For the heating applications, three options are studied with (i) a solar assisted vertical ground-source heat pump greenhouse heating system, (ii) a wood biomass boiler, and (iii) a natural gas boiler, which are driven by renewable and non-renewable energy sources. In this regard, two various greenhouses, the so-called small greenhouse and large greenhouse,...


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