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This article reflects the results of a study on sustainability of energy crops. Contribution to the reduction of the greenhouse effect and other environmental effects were investigated for the Netherlands. The study assumed that energy crops are grown on set aside or grain land. Generating electricity and/or heat from hemp, reed, miscanthus, poplar and willow have the best prospects. These crops are sustainable and may in the future be economically feasible. Ethanol from winter wheat has the most favourable environmental effects, but is economically not interesting. Liquid fuels from oil seed rape and sugar beet are not very sustainable.
Trends in oil supply and demand, potential for peaking of conventional oil production, and possible mitigation options: A summary report of the workshop
Coalbed methane development has proliferated across much of the western United States. Campbell County, Wyoming, in the Powder River Basin is one area that has seem some of the highest amounts of this development, most of it occurring on land where the surface use is livestock grazing, resulting in conflicts over resource use. This thesis takes a grounded theory approach to understanding the meaning that the ranchers that operate on this land have attached to this development. In doing so, this paper argues that these ranchers form opinions and attitudes based on how CBM has affected “the ranching way of life” and not simply on the perceived opportunity for economic gain. It also argues that although objections...
Evidence from cross-sectional growth regressions suggests that economies dependent on natural resource exports have had slower growth than resource scarce economies. Explanations for this "curse of resources" focus on institutional and market failures caused by resource abundance. With a simple two sector model exhaustible resource model, we demonstrate that the correlation between growth and natural resource abundance can be negative in the absence of market and institutional failures. Since there is no way to distinguish between efficient and inefficient equilibria on the basis of the negative correlation between growth and resource abundance, finding that correlation is not sufficient to conclude resources are...
Ecological and economic systems are open systems that require energy to change the thermodynamic states of materials from naturally occurring to more valued forms. These changes are accompanied by information flows and changes in the order of systems and their surroundings. In this paper, thermodynamics is used to assess these system changes and relate them to the knowledge present in a system. Particular emphasis is given to (1) the fundamental relationships among material, energy and information flows, and changes in order and knowledge, (2) the role of equilibrium and non-equilibrium thermodynamics in assessing system change, (3) the increasing role of material and energy flows through economic systems, and (4)...
Based on the need to reduce CO2 emissions and minimize energy dependency, the EU Member States have set ambitious energy policies goals and have developed respective, specific regulations, in order to improve the energy performance of the building sector. Thus, specific measures regarding the buildings’ envelope, the use of efficient HVAC technologies and the integration of renewable energy systems are being constantly studied and promoted. The effective combination of these three main aspects will consequently result in maximum energy efficiency. Germany has played a key role in this development, with intensive work focusing in the improvement of the energy behaviour of the residential building stock. In this paper,...
Laryngotracheitis in chickens: Infection studies and the efficacy of a tissue-culture vaccine in chicks less than four weeks old.
The following topics are currently covered by the MineralCommodity Summaries: domestic production and uses; U.S. salientstatistics; recycling; import sources; tariff; depletionallowance; government stockpile; events, trends, and issues;world production, reserves, and reserve base; world resources;and substitutes.
IgM-Producing B Lymphoblastoid Cell Line Established From Lymphomas Induced by a Non-Defective Reticuloendotheliosis Virus.
Isolation of a monoclonal antibody with specificity for commonly employed vaccine strains of Newcastle disease virus.
Cross-protection factor(s) of Pasteurella multocida : Passive immunization of turkeys against fowl cholera caused by different serotypes.
"live" vaccine of non replicatable Pasteurella multocida FS3 cells prepared by psoralen treatment and long wave UV irradiation.
Early reversible induction of leukotriene synthesis in chicken myelomonocytic cells transformed by a temperature-sensitive mutant of avian leukemia virus E26.
Prolonged evolution of photohydrogen by intermittent supply of nitrogen using a combined system of Phormidium valderianum, Halobacterium halobium, and Escherichia coli
Monoclonal antibodies to the S1 spike and membrane proteins of avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus strain Massachusetts M41.