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The primary supposition about renewable forms of energy is that use of such resources will not result in depletion or exhaustion. While it is true that natural energy flows such as sun and wind are not directly subject to degradation by use, there may still be indirect limitations on renewability. The exploitation of natural energy flows may require that systems of nonrenewable "support" resources be used to capture, store, and convert natural energy into useful forms. Poor resource management practices that degrade the support resources may therefore, in effect, endanger renewability. Biomass is an illustrative case of a renewable energy resource with nonrenewable support components. The soil and water management...
The primary supposition about renewable forms of energy is that use of such resources will not result in depletion or exhaustion. While it is true that natural energy flows such as sun and wind are not directly subject to degradation by use, there may still be indirect limitations on renewability. The exploitation of natural energy flows may require that systems of nonrenewable "support" resources be used to capture, store, and convert natural energy into useful forms. Poor resource management practices that degrade the support resources may therefore, in effect, endanger renewability. Biomass is an illustrative case of a renewable energy resource with nonrenewable support components. The soil and water management...
An environmental Life Cycle Assessment has been conducted for standard and advanced produc-tion technologies for multicrystalline silicon module production and new BOS concepts. It was found that the production route based on Solsilc silicon feedstock and RGS wafer technology can yield a 50% reduction of the environmental impacts in comparison with present-day standard technology. Similar results were obtained for a process using Bayer/Deutsche Solar feedstock material and EFG ribbon technology. New BOS concepts can also help to reduce environmental impacts especially if they allow the use of frameless modules. With such new technologies life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of PV systems in Southern-Europe can be...
Chemical treatment methods have been used with varying degrees of success for mitigating the environmental effects resulting from oil spills. These methods include dispersing, herding, and gelling a floating oil slick; sinking the oil; burning the oil mass either on open waters or on the affected shoreline; and applying film-forming chemical agents to protect shorelines from oil that eludes offshore cleanup. The latest technical information on the applicability and effectiveness of these approaches for treating and controlling oil spills is presented
Plastics have now become indispensable materials in the modern world and application in the industrial field is continually increasing. The properties of the oil derived from waste plastics were analyzed and found that it has properties similar to that of diesel. Waste plastic oil (WPO) was tested as a fuel in a D.I. diesel engine and its performance characteristics were analysed and compared with diesel fuel (DF) operation. It is observed that the engine could operate with 100% waste plastic oil and can be used as fuel in diesel engines. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) was higher by about 25% and carbon monoxide (CO) increased by 5% for waste plastic oil operation compared to diesel fuel (DF) operation. Hydrocarbon was...
The effects of 120 days of high-intensity (80-kV/m) 60-Hz electric field exposure on hematologic constituents were investigated using a three-generation design including 135 field-exposed and 135 sham-exposed male Sprague-Dawley rats. Statistical tests performed included the multivariate analysis of variance, the univariate analysis of variance, and tests of simple effects. Total white cell count, lymphocyte count, and eosinophil count were significantly lower in field-exposed subjects; however, none of the red cell parameters differed significantly. The observed hematologic variations related to the exposure of a high-intensity electric field are consistent with those observed in animals responding to a mild stressor.
Chemical treatment methods have been used with varying degrees of success for mitigating the environmental effects resulting from oil spills. These methods include dispersing, herding, and gelling a floating oil slick; sinking the oil; burning the oil mass either on open waters or on the affected shoreline; and applying film-forming chemical agents to protect shorelines from oil that eludes offshore cleanup. The latest technical information on the applicability and effectiveness of these approaches for treating and controlling oil spills is presented
Plastics have now become indispensable materials in the modern world and application in the industrial field is continually increasing. The properties of the oil derived from waste plastics were analyzed and found that it has properties similar to that of diesel. Waste plastic oil (WPO) was tested as a fuel in a D.I. diesel engine and its performance characteristics were analysed and compared with diesel fuel (DF) operation. It is observed that the engine could operate with 100% waste plastic oil and can be used as fuel in diesel engines. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) was higher by about 25% and carbon monoxide (CO) increased by 5% for waste plastic oil operation compared to diesel fuel (DF) operation. Hydrocarbon was...
Chemical treatment methods have been used with varying degrees of success for mitigating the environmental effects resulting from oil spills. These methods include dispersing, herding, and gelling a floating oil slick; sinking the oil; burning the oil mass either on open waters or on the affected shoreline; and applying film-forming chemical agents to protect shorelines from oil that eludes offshore cleanup. The latest technical information on the applicability and effectiveness of these approaches for treating and controlling oil spills is presented
The effects of 120 days of high-intensity (80-kV/m) 60-Hz electric field exposure on hematologic constituents were investigated using a three-generation design including 135 field-exposed and 135 sham-exposed male Sprague-Dawley rats. Statistical tests performed included the multivariate analysis of variance, the univariate analysis of variance, and tests of simple effects. Total white cell count, lymphocyte count, and eosinophil count were significantly lower in field-exposed subjects; however, none of the red cell parameters differed significantly. The observed hematologic variations related to the exposure of a high-intensity electric field are consistent with those observed in animals responding to a mild stressor.
An environmental Life Cycle Assessment has been conducted for standard and advanced produc-tion technologies for multicrystalline silicon module production and new BOS concepts. It was found that the production route based on Solsilc silicon feedstock and RGS wafer technology can yield a 50% reduction of the environmental impacts in comparison with present-day standard technology. Similar results were obtained for a process using Bayer/Deutsche Solar feedstock material and EFG ribbon technology. New BOS concepts can also help to reduce environmental impacts especially if they allow the use of frameless modules. With such new technologies life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of PV systems in Southern-Europe can be...