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Abstract?Larval western toads (Bufo boreas) are known to exhibit antipredator behavior in response to both chemical alarm cues released from injured conspecifics and chemical cues of predatory invertebrates. In this study, we tested whether long-term exposure to predator and alarm cues resulted in an adaptive shift in life history characteristics of the toads. We raised groups of tadpoles in the presence of: (1) predatory backswimmers (Notonecta spp.) that were fed toad tadpoles, (2) nonpredatory water boatman (Corixidae), and (3) chemical alarm cues of injured conspecifics. Tadpoles raised in the presence of both chemical alarm cues and cues of predators fed tadpoles metamorphosed in significantly shorter time...
Concern over the status of species associated with prairie dog colonies has increased with the recent proposed listing of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We monitored burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) populations and prairie dog densities in 17 black-tailed prairie dog colonies in the Nebraska panhandle between 1990 and 1996. All prairie dog colonies were controlled at least once during the study. We observed a 63% decline in nesting pairs of burrowing owls and significant declines in burrow densities. Results indicated a time lag in owl response to changes in active burrow densities. However, in the later years of the study when burrow densities were lowest, owl numbers were positively correlated...
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These data include a row for each duck nest equipped with a small video camera. We present the location of the nest, the timing of the start of hatch, the timing of the end of hatch, and the timing of the departure of the hen and ducklings from the nest. Additionally, this table includes any predators that were observed at the nest depredating eggs prior to hatch and any predators that were observed at the nest between hatch and departure from the nest. These data support the following publication: "Sitting ducklings: Timing of hatch, nest departure, and predation risk for dabbling duck broods" by Sarah H. Peterson, Joshua T. Ackerman, Mark P. Herzog, C. Alex Hartman, Rebecca Croston, Cliff L. Feldheim, and Michael...
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These tables serve as input data for hierarchical models investigating interactions between raven density and Greater Sage-grouse nest success. Observations were recorded over an 11 year time period, spanning from 2009 through 2019. The model is run in JAGS via R, the code is publicly available via the U.S. Geological Survey's GitLab (O'Neil et al. 2023). We recommend not making any changes or edits to the tables unless the user is experienced with hierarchical modeling. References: O'Neil, S.T., Coates, P.S., Webster, S.C., Brussee, B.E., Dettenmaier, S.J., Tull, J.C., Jackson, P.J., Casazza, M.L., and Espinosa, S.P., 2023, Code for a hierarchical model of raven densities linked with sage-grouse nest survival...
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Conclusions: Habitat changes resulting from timber harvest have altered the predator–prey balance leading to asymmetric predation affecting the survivial rates of endangered mountain caribou Thresholds/Learnings: As young forest stands increase in proportion to old forests, caribou population densities and survival rates decline as they become increasingly vulnerable to predation and extripation. Synopsis: Timber harvesting in areas of Mountain Caribou habitat have created landscapes of early seral forests. Such habitat changes have altered the predator–prey balance resulting in asymmetric predation in which predators are maintained by alternative prey (i.e. apparent competition). This study estimates survival...
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Data on intraguild predation of arthropods on the tarweed Hemizonia congesta. Arthropod counts (predators, herbivores, etc) and counts of entrapped arthropod corpses on focal plants in an experiment manipulating arthropod carrion amount and plant damage. Quantifications of plant damage and reproduction are presented.
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These data were compiled to explore the foraging ecology of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona. These data represent samples characterizing the availability of drifting invertebrate prey (hereafter, drift) and use of these invertebrate prey by rainbow trout determined by gut samples (hereafter, diets). Drift and diet sampling occurred in five distinct reaches downstream of Glen Canyon Dam (river kilometer (rkm) from the dam): (I) rkm 16.3-21.7; (II) rkm 52.8-58.3; (III) rkm 86.6-91.9; (IV) rkm 122.0-123.6; and (V) rkm 127.1-129.6. Samples were taken on 12 trips in April, July, September and January from April 2012 through January 2015. The aquatic prey base consists...
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This data set includes count, location, and ancillary habitat data for fishes sampled in adjacent reaches of Georgiana Slough, Sacramento River, and Steamboat Slough in the northern Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. It also includes data on the stomach contents of selected individual black basses (Micropterus). Fishes were sampled by boat electrofishing from approximately January-May, 2020-2022, plus gillnetting in 2020. Samples were collected under a stratified random sampling design. Gillnetting involved short duration (~60 minute) sets of monofilament experimental gill nets. Boat electrofishing involved either single or repeated passes along an individual 300 m shoreline transect. Stomach contents data are from fishes...
The role of biotic interactions in structuring freshwater invertebrate communities has been extensively studied but with mixed results. For example, fish effects on invertebrates are most pronounced in pelagic and soft-sediment benthic habitats that lack structural complexity, yet appear insignificant in benthic rubble habitats. Backwaters of the Green River, Utah, are shallow, structurally simple, quiet-water embayments adjacent to the river. These habitats form in middle to late summer and are colonized by benthic and epibenthic invertebrates that produce standing crops significantly higher than the river. Backwaters are also utilized by a large number of fish species. We used cages to determine if selective exclusion...
Conclusions:Adult mortality appeared to be largely the result of predation, with cougars accounting for half of the known-cause mortalities. The much higher rate of mortality observed in the more developed portion of the study area supports a link between predation and forestry development.Thresholds/Learnings:
Historically, terrestrial food web theory has been compartmentalized into interactions among aboveground or belowground communities. In this study we took a more synthetic approach to understanding food web interactions by simultaneously examining four trophic levels and investigating how nutrient (nitrogen and carbon) and detrital subsidies impact the ability of the belowground microbial community to alter the abundance of aboveground arthropods (herbivores and predators) associated with the intertidal cord grass Spartina alterniflora. We manipulated carbon, nitrogen, and detrital resources in a field experiment and measured decomposition rate, soil nitrogen pools, plant biomass and quality, herbivore density,...
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Invasive rodents on islands have adverse impacts on native birds in island ecosystems, and rats are the most common culprits. Recently, house mice (Mus musculus) in the South Atlantic were found preying on three species of albatross chicks. Here, we show that house mice can also prey on nesting adult Laysan albatross (Phoebastrea immutabilis) on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (USA). In contrast to mouse attacks on albatross in the South Atlantic where mice targeted the rump and crown of chicks, on Midway, mice targeted nesting adults mainly on the back. For both regions, the outcome was similar with reduced nesting success. In the case of Midway, reduced nesting success was due to nest abandonment or mortality...
AVI files documenting raccoon (Procyon lotor) foraging for apple snails (Pomacea maculata) on a water hyacinth mat at Mandalay National Wildlife Refuge. Videos were taken with various models of Moultrie camera traps between January and March 2017.
Nine Heloderma suspectum were observed between 1 April and 13 July 1979. In April and May, movements of Heloderma were associated with areas where eggs of ground nesting birds were most abundant. During June and July, Heloderma responded to decreasing egg availability by shifting their diets to small mammals and moving onto areas where these prey were most abundant. These shifts are adaptive as Heloderma continually exploit the most abundant prey. Lizards demonstrated a foraging strategy of rarely backtracking and consuming only an average of 46% of the eggs available at each nest. The number of eggs eaten per day by each lizard was positively correlated with lizard weight. Combinations of lizard satiation, reproduction,...
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This data set includes environmental and biological information on fishes collected using gill nets and otter trawls during day and night, as well as diet data for Striped bass and Sacramento pikeminnow obtained via gastric lavage. Sampling took place in and around Ryer Island, Suisun Bay, California during Winter and Spring of 2018.
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Rasters representing median raven density estimates, calculated from approximately 28,000 raven point count surveys conducted between 2009 and 2019. Estimates were the result of a Bayesian hierarchical distance sampling model, using environmental covariates on detection and abundance.
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Conclusions: Caribou mortalities attributed to wolf predation were generally closer to a corridor, indicating that linear corridors may enhance wolf predation efficiency. Therefore, caribou existing closer to linear corridors are at a higher risk of depredation than those farther from corridors. Thresholds/Learnings: Synopsis: This study tested the hypothesis that linear corridors affect caribou and wolf activities by examining the distribution of telemetry locations of caribou and wolves, as well as locations of caribou mortality and caribou predation by wolves relative to linear corridors caused by roads, seismic lines, power lines, and pipeline rights-of-way. Caribou mortalities attributed to wolf predation...
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Synopsis: This study examines the influence of landscape fragmentation on trophic cascades in southern California. Results indicate that, as habitat fragmentation negatively affects the persistence of coyote populations, the abundance of smaller meso-predators increase, resulting in higher mortality rates in scrub-breeding birds. Fragment size was a strong indicator of coyote abundance, and coyote abundance was a strong indicator of bird diversity, as coyotes kept down the number of meso-predators that prey on birds. The positive effect of fragment area and the negative effect of fragment age were the strongest determinants of bird diversity in this system. Conclusions: Fragment size correlates with coyote abundance,...
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These data were compiled to evaluate the potential adverse impacts that stocked trout may have on native fish populaitons through predation. Hatchery-reared rainbow and brown trout are typically fed exclusively on commercially prepared pelleted feeds and have no experience catching or consuming life fish at the time of stocking and yet stocked fish are percieved to present a high predation risk for juvenile native fishes. These data were compiled to allow for a relative comparison of predation effectiveness between hatchery-reared fish and wild fish. Mean numbers of prey fish surviving in replicated overnight laboratory predation trials were quantified.
Tags: Aquatic Biology, Arizona, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Page Springs Fish Hatchery, Big Water, Canyon Creek, All tags...
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We combined approximately 28,000 raven point count surveys with data from more than 900 sage-grouse nests between 2009 and 2019 within the Great Basin, USA. We modeled variation in raven density using a Bayesian hierarchical distance sampling approach with environmental covariates on detection and abundance. Concurrently, we modeled sage-grouse nest survival using a hierarchical frailty model as a function of raven density as well as other environmental covariates that influence risk of failure. Raven density commonly exceeded more than 0.5 ravens per square kilometer and increased at low relative elevations with prevalent anthropogenic development and/or agriculture. Reduced sage-grouse nest survival was strongly...


map background search result map search result map Distribution of caribou and wolves in relation to linear corridors Changes in landscape composition influence the decline of a threatened woodland caribou population Mesopredator release and avifaunal extinctions in a fragmented system. Hatchery Trout Predation Data, Arizona Intraguild predation dataset for arthropods on tarweed plants The timing of dabbling duckling hatch, nest departure and depredation in Suisun Marsh, California from 2015-2017 Diets of Striped bass and Sacramento pikeminnow at Ryer Island, Suisun Bay, California, 2018 Mouse predation on Laysan albatross Rainbow trout diet and invertebrate drift data from 2012-2015 for the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona Distribution and stomach contents of fishes in the northern Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, 2020-2022 Data to Support Hierarchical Models and Decision Support Maps to Guide Management of Subsidized Avian Predator Densities Median Estimates of Raven Density in California, Nevada, and Idaho (2012 - 2019) Raven Observations near Greater Sage-Grouse Nests in the Great Basin and Bi-State Regions of the Western United States (2009 - 2019) Diets of Striped bass and Sacramento pikeminnow at Ryer Island, Suisun Bay, California, 2018 The timing of dabbling duckling hatch, nest departure and depredation in Suisun Marsh, California from 2015-2017 Distribution and stomach contents of fishes in the northern Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, 2020-2022 Intraguild predation dataset for arthropods on tarweed plants Hatchery Trout Predation Data, Arizona Rainbow trout diet and invertebrate drift data from 2012-2015 for the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona Distribution of caribou and wolves in relation to linear corridors Changes in landscape composition influence the decline of a threatened woodland caribou population Data to Support Hierarchical Models and Decision Support Maps to Guide Management of Subsidized Avian Predator Densities Median Estimates of Raven Density in California, Nevada, and Idaho (2012 - 2019) Raven Observations near Greater Sage-Grouse Nests in the Great Basin and Bi-State Regions of the Western United States (2009 - 2019) Mesopredator release and avifaunal extinctions in a fragmented system.