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The application of post-combustion capture (PCC) processes in coal fired power stations can result in large reductions of the CO2-emissions, but the consequential decrease in generation efficiency is an important draw-back The leading PCC technology is based on chemical absorption processes as this technology is the one whose scale-up status is closest to full-scale capture in power plants The energy performance of this process is analysed in this contribution. The analysis shows that the potential for improvement of the energy performance is quite large It is demonstrated that further development of the capture technology and the power plant technology can lead to generation efficiencies for power plants with 90%...
Some theoretical results concerning the nature of the relationship between the scientific quality and economic value of imperfect weather forecasts are obtained. A prototype multistage decision-making model is considered, involving only two possible actions and two possible states of weather. This particular form of model is motivated by a real-world application known as the fruit-frost problem. For an infinite-horizon, discounted version of this model it is shown that economic value remains zero below a forecast quality threshold and then rises monotonically but nonlinearly above this threshold. In particular, the relative sensitivity of economic value to changes in the quality of forecasts increases as perfect...
Nations must work together to minimize the risk of global warming. A worldwide energy efficiency campaign - led and coordinated by an International Energy Efficiency Agency (IEEA) - could be a critical component in such an effort. The IEEA could: I) strengthen energy efficiency efforts in industrialized countries; 2) help to build capability for implementing energy efficiency improvements in developing and East European countries; 3) provide capital for large-scale energy efficiency investments in developing and East European nations. Appropriate activities for the IEEA include information dissemination; joint R& D programrues; demonstration of technologies as well as policy instruments; training or supporting national...
Ecotourism has been proposed as a viable economic activity that can minimize negative human impacts on wildlife habitat and provide an incentive to preserve natural areas. The potential of ecotourism as a wildlife conservation strategy is limited by its inability to insure the long-term protection of environmental assets and by its tendency to contribute directly to environmental degradation. Ecotourism is a proxy market designed to align consumers' preferences for recreation with the protection of environmental assets. Because it does not necessarily address the direct protection of those assets, it is prone to market failure. Pressures on governments and firms involved in providing ecotourism services will impair...
State policies can support renewable energy development by driving markets, providing certainty in the investment market, and incorporating the external benefits of the technologies into cost/benefit calculations. Using statistical analyses and policy design best practices, this paper quantifies the impact of state-level policies on renewable energy development in order to better understand the role of policy on development and inform policy makers on the policy mechanisms that provide maximum benefit. The results include the identification of connections between state policies and renewable energy development, as well as a discussion placing state policy efforts in context with other factors that influence the...
Yields of winter wheat, silage maize and grain maize in the main arable areas of the European Union (E.U.) were calculated with a simulation model, WOFOST, using historical weather data and average soil characteristics. The sensitivity of the model to individual weather variables was determined.Subsequent analyses were made using climate change scenarios with and without the direct effects of increased atmospheric CO 2. The impact of crop management in a changed climate was also assessed. The various climate change scenarios used appear to yield considerably different changes in yield, both for each location and for the E.U. as a whole.
Coalbed methane is one of the most important and valuable natural resources in the Western United States. The natural gas that results from CBM development is the cleanest burning fossil fuel, and the extensive domestic supply makes it a central element of the national goal of a secure supply of energy. Demand for natural gas will continue to grow and CBM will play an increasingly larger role in meeting that demand. CBM production has expanded tremendously over the past decade, and the rapidity with which development has expanded has resulted in stresses and tension in affected communities. Development of this important energy resource must be balanced with a number of other important goals of protecting water,...
This paper describes the potential applications of renewable energy sources to replace fossil fuel combustion as the prime energy sources in various countries, and discusses problems associated with biomass combustion in boiler power systems. Here, the term biomass includes organic matter produced as a result of photosynthesis as well as municipal, industrial and animal waste material. Brief summaries of the basic concepts involved in the combustion of biomass fuels are presented. Renewable energy sources (RES) supply 14% of the total world energy demand. RES are biomass, hydropower, geothermal, solar, wind and marine energies. The renewables are the primary, domestic and clean or inexhaustible energy resources....
The status of computer simulation models from around the world for evaluating the possible ecological, environmental, and societal consequences of global change is presented in this paper. In addition, a brief synopsis of the state of the science of these impacts is included. Issues considered include future changes in climate and patterns of land use for societal needs, Models dis cussed relate to vegetation (e.g, crop), soil, bio-geochemistry, water, and wildlife responses to conventional, forecasted changes in temperature and precipitation. Also described are models of these responses, alone and interactively, to increased CO2, other air pollutants and UV-B radiation, as the state of the science allows. Further,...
We discuss that whilst energy conservation and energy efficiency both ultimately have the same goal they attempt to achieve this via very different approaches. We then discuss how both options face significant barriers to ultimately successfully reduce electricity consumption.
Coalbed methane is one of the most important and valuable natural resources in the Western United States. The natural gas that results from CBM development is the cleanest burning fossil fuel, and the extensive domestic supply makes it a central element of the national goal of a secure supply of energy. Demand for natural gas will continue to grow and CBM will play an increasingly larger role in meeting that demand. CBM production has expanded tremendously over the past decade, and the rapidity with which development has expanded has resulted in stresses and tension in affected communities. Development of this important energy resource must be balanced with a number of other important goals of protecting water,...
Methane and nitrous oxide are potent greenhouse gases whose atmospheric abundances have increased significantly in the past 200 years, together accounting for approximately half of the radiative forcing associated with increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide. In order to understand the factors causing increase of these gases globally, we need to determine their emission rates at regional to continental scales. We directly link atmospheric observations with surface emissions using a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model, and then determine emission rates by optimizing prior emissions estimates. We use measurements from NOAA's tall tower and aircraft program in 2004, The Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: benzene, evaluation, exposure, human, potential
Coalbed methane is one of the most important and valuable natural resources in the Western United States. The natural gas that results from CBM development is the cleanest burning fossil fuel, and the extensive domestic supply makes it a central element of the national goal of a secure supply of energy. Demand for natural gas will continue to grow and CBM will play an increasingly larger role in meeting that demand. CBM production has expanded tremendously over the past decade, and the rapidity with which development has expanded has resulted in stresses and tension in affected communities. Development of this important energy resource must be balanced with a number of other important goals of protecting water,...
Coalbed methane is one of the most important and valuable natural resources in the Western United States. The natural gas that results from CBM development is the cleanest burning fossil fuel, and the extensive domestic supply makes it a central element of the national goal of a secure supply of energy. Demand for natural gas will continue to grow and CBM will play an increasingly larger role in meeting that demand. CBM production has expanded tremendously over the past decade, and the rapidity with which development has expanded has resulted in stresses and tension in affected communities. Development of this important energy resource must be balanced with a number of other important goals of protecting water,...
Nations must work together to minimize the risk of global warming. A worldwide energy efficiency campaign - led and coordinated by an International Energy Efficiency Agency (IEEA) - could be a critical component in such an effort. The IEEA could: I) strengthen energy efficiency efforts in industrialized countries; 2) help to build capability for implementing energy efficiency improvements in developing and East European countries; 3) provide capital for large-scale energy efficiency investments in developing and East European nations. Appropriate activities for the IEEA include information dissemination; joint R& D programrues; demonstration of technologies as well as policy instruments; training or supporting national...
Why did nuclear energy policies in France, Sweden, and the United States, very similar at the time of the oil crisis of 1973 and 1974, diverge so greatly in the following years? In answering this question, James Jasper challenges one of the most popular trends in political analysis: explanations relying exclusively on political and economic structures to account for public policies. Jasper proposes a new cultural and state-centered approach--one heeding not only structural factors but cultural meanings, individual biographies, and elite discretion. Surveying the period from the successful commercialization of light-water-reactor technology in the early 1960s to the present, he explains the events that occurred after...
Coalbed methane is one of the most important and valuable natural resources in the Western United States. The natural gas that results from CBM development is the cleanest burning fossil fuel, and the extensive domestic supply makes it a central element of the national goal of a secure supply of energy. Demand for natural gas will continue to grow and CBM will play an increasingly larger role in meeting that demand. CBM production has expanded tremendously over the past decade, and the rapidity with which development has expanded has resulted in stresses and tension in affected communities. Development of this important energy resource must be balanced with a number of other important goals of protecting water,...