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Two native desert shrubs were evaluated for their growth potential and water and nitrogen uptake patterns over a nitrate-contaminated aquifer at a former uranium ore-processing facility in northeastern Arizona. Sarcobatus vermiculatus and Atriplex canescens are obligate and facultative phreatophytes, respectively, that dominate the local desert plant community. The main questions we addressed were: (1) Are these shrubs able to use water or nitrogen from the alluvial aquifer? (2) If so, does grazing interfere with that ability of shrubs? (3) What would be the ideal strategy to take up N from the plume and prevent its expansion and recharge using shrubs? ?18O and ?D isotope signatures from water in plant stem samples...
This paper investigates the potential for systematic errors in the Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) widely used Annual Energy Outlook, focusing on the near- to midterm projections of energy demand. Based on analysis of the EIA’s 22-year projection record, we find a fairly modest but persistent tendency to underestimate total energy demand by an average of 2 percent per year after controlling for projection errors in gross domestic product, oil prices, and heating/cooling degree days. For 14 individual fuels/consuming sectors routinely reported by the EIA, we observe a great deal of directional consistency in the errors over time, ranging up to 7 percent per year. Electric utility renewables, electric utility...
To obtain the basic information required before using Populus alba L. to phytoremediate degraded saline environments, we investigated the effects of saline irrigation on the growth, survival, Na partitioning, and Na dynamics of 1-year-old rooted cuttings. The plants were grown in a greenhouse in lysimeters containing sandy soil and were watered with field water (control) or solutions containing either 2000 or 5000 mg L?1 of a mixture of NaCl and CaCl2 (low- and high-salt treatments, respectively). All plants in the control and the low-salt treatment survived after 1 year of treatment, but the high-salt treatment significantly decreased growth and caused 20% mortality. Strong Na partitioning was observed in the roots...
This paper investigates the potential for systematic errors in the Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) widely used Annual Energy Outlook, focusing on the near- to midterm projections of energy demand. Based on analysis of the EIA’s 22-year projection record, we find a fairly modest but persistent tendency to underestimate total energy demand by an average of 2 percent per year after controlling for projection errors in gross domestic product, oil prices, and heating/cooling degree days. For 14 individual fuels/consuming sectors routinely reported by the EIA, we observe a great deal of directional consistency in the errors over time, ranging up to 7 percent per year. Electric utility renewables, electric utility...
Mining activities are a major source of land degradation in arid regions, and remediation methods developed for mesic sites may not be appropriate for arid sites. In climates where potential evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation, it might be possible to prevent the migration of contaminants away from a mine site by controlling the site water balance through vegetation, and allowing natural attenuation processes to reduce pollutant levels over time. We investigated the feasibility of remediating a nitrate-contaminated source-plume system in a desert environment using biological methods. The study site was a former uranium mill in Monument Valley, Arizona, where NO3? used in ore processing had leaked from the soil...
This paper investigates the potential for systematic errors in the Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) widely used Annual Energy Outlook, focusing on the near- to midterm projections of energy demand. Based on analysis of the EIA’s 22-year projection record, we find a fairly modest but persistent tendency to underestimate total energy demand by an average of 2 percent per year after controlling for projection errors in gross domestic product, oil prices, and heating/cooling degree days. For 14 individual fuels/consuming sectors routinely reported by the EIA, we observe a great deal of directional consistency in the errors over time, ranging up to 7 percent per year. Electric utility renewables, electric utility...
This paper investigates the potential for systematic errors in the Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) widely used Annual Energy Outlook, focusing on the near- to midterm projections of energy demand. Based on analysis of the EIA’s 22-year projection record, we find a fairly modest but persistent tendency to underestimate total energy demand by an average of 2 percent per year after controlling for projection errors in gross domestic product, oil prices, and heating/cooling degree days. For 14 individual fuels/consuming sectors routinely reported by the EIA, we observe a great deal of directional consistency in the errors over time, ranging up to 7 percent per year. Electric utility renewables, electric utility...
As electricity demand increases, policymakers must make decisions about which energy resources will meet future demands. Much of the recent literature has focused on the contribution of new coal power plants to carbon emissions (Milford et al., 2005; Milford et al., 2007; MIT 2007). However, policymakers and industry are increasingly interested in job creation and economic development analyses to understand the full impacts of new electricity generation projects.1 Additionally, economic development impacts are often a critical piece in building public support for wind power projects. The purpose of this research is to look at the specific factors that drive wind-power-related economic development and to better understand...
As electricity demand increases, policymakers must make decisions about which energy resources will meet future demands. Much of the recent literature has focused on the contribution of new coal power plants to carbon emissions (Milford et al., 2005; Milford et al., 2007; MIT 2007). However, policymakers and industry are increasingly interested in job creation and economic development analyses to understand the full impacts of new electricity generation projects.1 Additionally, economic development impacts are often a critical piece in building public support for wind power projects. The purpose of this research is to look at the specific factors that drive wind-power-related economic development and to better understand...
A 1.6 ha plot of Atriplex canescens (fourwing saltbush) was established in a desert soil at a former uranium ore-processing plant, near Monument Valley, Arizona, to remediate nitrate and ammonium N contamination. The plants were irrigated to stimulate growth and N uptake. However, NO3? loss from the soil was unexpectedly rapid. Initially, the soil contained approximately 180 mg kg?1 NO3??N distributed at depths up to 4.6 m, but concentrations decreased to 80 mg kg?1 after 41 months. Losses occurred throughout the plot at all soil depths. NH4?N remained unchanged (ca.180 mg kg?1). Soil moisture was generally below field capacity and soil?water flux showed no net downward movement over the course of the study. A salt...
This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Data Release contains tree-core, groundwater, and soil data collected at the Vienna Wells Superfund site in Vienna, Missouri by the U.S. Geological Survey between 2011 and 2016. Concentrations of tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113) are reported for each location or sample in each medium. Tree-core sampling was conducted over seven days during six major phases occurring during September 2011, May 2013, August 2013, July 2014, May 2015, and October 2015. A total of 470 tree-core samples were collected and analyzed using established methods. A total of 56 groundwater samples were collected from monitoring wells on...
As electricity demand increases, policymakers must make decisions about which energy resources will meet future demands. Much of the recent literature has focused on the contribution of new coal power plants to carbon emissions (Milford et al., 2005; Milford et al., 2007; MIT 2007). However, policymakers and industry are increasingly interested in job creation and economic development analyses to understand the full impacts of new electricity generation projects.1 Additionally, economic development impacts are often a critical piece in building public support for wind power projects. The purpose of this research is to look at the specific factors that drive wind-power-related economic development and to better understand...