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Interspecific interactions of herbivores sharing a host plant may be important in structuring herbivore communities. We investigated host plant-mediated interactions of root (Hylobius transversovittatus) and leaf herbivores (Galerucella calmariensis), released to control purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in North America, in field and potted plant experiments. In the potted plant experiments, leaf herbivory by G. calmariensis reduced H. transversovittatus larval survival (but not larval development) but did not affect oviposition preference. Root herbivory by H. transversovittatus did not affect either G. calmariensis fitness or oviposition preference. In field cage experiments, we found no evidence of interspecific...
This study deals with modeling and analyzing the performance of greenhouses from the power plant through the heating system to the greenhouse envelope using exergy analysis method, the so-called low exergy or LowEx approach, which has been and still being successfully used in sustainable buildings design, for the first time to the best of the author’s knowledge. For the heating applications, three options are studied with (i) a solar assisted vertical ground-source heat pump greenhouse heating system, (ii) a wood biomass boiler, and (iii) a natural gas boiler, which are driven by renewable and non-renewable energy sources. In this regard, two various greenhouses, the so-called small greenhouse and large greenhouse,...