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Synopsis: This study evaluates whether previous observations of a higher percentage of parasitism and parasitoid diversity in a complex agricultural landscape, relative to a simple landscape, represent a general phenomenon. Rates of parasitism and parasitoid diversity of the armyworm (Pseudaletia unipuncta) were assessed in three replicate (Onondaga, Ingham, and Benton) regions in southern Michigan. Within each region, a simple landscape (primarily cropland) and a complex landscape (cropland intermixed with mid and late successional noncrop habitats) were identified through analysis of aerial photographs. In each landscape, three maize fields were selected, and second to fourth instar P. unipuncta were released...
Abstract (from http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0059687): Cities profoundly alter biological communities, favoring some species over others, though the mechanisms that govern these changes are largely unknown. Herbivorous arthropod pests are often more abundant in urban than in rural areas, and urban outbreaks have been attributed to reduced control by predators and parasitoids and to increased susceptibility of stressed urban plants. These hypotheses, however, leave many outbreaks unexplained and fail to predict variation in pest abundance within cities. Here we show that the abundance of a common insect pest is positively related to temperature even when controlling for other habitat...
1 Recent research has demonstrated important linkages between above- and below-ground components of terrestrial ecosystems, but the relationships between aerial parasitic plants, such as dwarf mistletoes, and below-ground organisms, such as mycorrhizal fungi, have not been examined in detail. 2 We examined the relationship between dwarf mistletoe infection, host vigour and the ectomycorrhizal colonization and fungal community composition of pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) using a combination of field observations and glasshouse studies. 3 High levels of dwarf mistletoe infection were not associated with increased mortality or needle loss of infected pinyons, but infected trees had lower shoot growth. 4 Ectomycorrhizal...
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This dataset is one table with results of tests to determine exposure of Chukchi Sea polar bears to a suite of pathogens. Results are serological tests for antibodies and tests of fecal samples for presence of parasites. Serologic assays were conducted for Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Francisella tularensis, Coxiella burnetii, Leptospira spp., Brucella canis, Brucella abortus/suis, and canine distemper virus. Parasitology analyses were conducted for presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptospiridium oocysts in fecal samples. Polar bears were sampled on sea ice in the Chukchi Sea between mid-March and early May 1987-1994 and 2008-2017. The dataset includes relevant information about the bears that were captured...
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This data release includes metadata and tabular data documenting the reproductive demography of the Samoan swallowtail butterfly (Papilio godeffroyi), including rates of parasitism by two species of Ooencyrtus wasp. Data was collected at approximately monthly surveys of marked host trees (Micromelum minutum) at eight forest stands, mostly in or adjacent to the National Park of American Samoa (NPSA), Tutuila Island, during 2013-2014. One stand was located near the western tip of Tutuila, outside NPSA. Data sets document: (1) sampling effort for swallowtail specimens during monthly surveys of host trees; (2) final life cycle stage achieved by swallowtail specimens brought into the laboratory for rearing or postmortem...
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Examination of gastrointestinal tracts of native cyprinids from the Little Colorado River (LCR) in Grand Canyon, Arizona, 1990-1994, revealed varying rates of prevalence and infrapopulation levels of Asian tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi). Mean prevalence was 28% (range 0-78%) in humpback chub (Gila cypha) and 8% (range 0-46%) in speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus), with infrapopulations as high as 46 and 28, respectively. We also note Asian tapeworm infection of nonnatives common carp (Cyprinus carpio), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), and plains killifish (Fundulus zebrinus) from the LCR. Reported pathogenic and chronic effects of this cestode to its definitive hosts add concern for the status of...


    map background search result map search result map Asian tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) in native fishes from the Little Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona Does agricultural landscape structure affect parasistism and parasitoid diversity? Samoan swallowtail butterfly reproductive life history and parasitism, 2013-2014 Pathogen Exposure Data for Chukchi Sea Polar Bears 1988-1994 and 2008-2017 Samoan swallowtail butterfly reproductive life history and parasitism, 2013-2014 Asian tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) in native fishes from the Little Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Arizona Does agricultural landscape structure affect parasistism and parasitoid diversity? Pathogen Exposure Data for Chukchi Sea Polar Bears 1988-1994 and 2008-2017