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ABSTRACT: Samples from 107 piñon pines (Pinns edulis) at four sites were used to develop a proxy record of annual (June to June) precipitation spanning the 1226 to 2001 AD interval for the Uinta Basin Watershed of northeastern Utah. The reconstruction reveals significant precipitation variability at interannual to decadal scales. Single-year dry events before the instrumental period tended to be more severe than those after 1900. In general, decadal scale dry events were longer and more severe prior to 1900. In particular, dry events in the late 13th, 16th, and 18th Centuries surpass the magnitude and duration of droughts seen in the Uinta Basin after 1900. The last four decades of the 20th Century also represent...
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This data release includes a table of concentrations (Sr, U) and radiogenic-isotope compositions (87Sr/86Sr, 234U/238U) for samples of modern lake water as well as a table of isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr and 234U/238U) for carbonate-rich samples from a 12.4-m-long composite core of lacustrine sediment from Lower Pahranagat Lake in southeastern Nevada, USA. Stratigraphic and geochronologic context for depths and ages of core material are also included here based on Bayesian age-depth modeling software (Bacon v. 2.2) published in a previous report (Theissen et al., 2019, https://doi.org/10.1017/qua.2019.11).
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Holocene sediments at Emerald Lake in central Utah (3090 m a.s.l), document the paleohydroclimatic history of the western Upper Colorado River headwater region. Multi-proxy analyses of sediment composition, mineralogy, and stable isotopes of carbonate (d18O and d13C) show changes in effective moisture for the past ca. 10,000 years at millennial to decadal timescales. Emerald Lake originated as a shallow closed-basin cirque pond during the early Holocene. By ca. 7000 cal yr BP, higher lake levels and carbonate d18O values indicate rising effective moisture and higher proportions of summer precipitation continued at least until ca. 5500 cal yr BP when a landslide entered the lake margin. Between ca. 4500 and 2400...
Availability of long-term information on the variability of water resources in a given area is particularly important for sustainable resource management. Developing watershed simulation models that can be run using annually-resolved proxy climate data provides a way to improve reconstructions of hydrological parameters over multi-century time scales. Through the addition of a snowmelt modeling component, we enhanced a simple water-balance model to simulate streamflow at seasonal resolution. The model was calibrated to the upper Meadow Valley Wash, Nevada, USA, using USGS gage number 09417500 streamflow records. PRISM data at 2.5 arc-min resolution were used to reconstruct streamflow at the seasonal timescale (October...
Samples from 107 piñon pines (Pinns edulis) at four sites were used to develop a proxy record of annual (June to June) precipitation spanning the 1226 to 2001 AD interval for the Uinta Basin Watershed of northeastern Utah. The reconstruction reveals significant precipitation variability at interannual to decadal scales. Single-year dry events before the instrumental period tended to be more severe than those after 1900. In general, decadal scale dry events were longer and more severe prior to 1900. In particular, dry events in the late 13th, 16th, and 18th Centuries surpass the magnitude and duration of droughts seen in the Uinta Basin after 1900. The last four decades of the 20th Century also represent one of the...
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In the past century, eruptions of Steamboat Geyser in Yellowstone’s Norris Geyser Basin were mainly clustered in three episodes: between 1961 and 1969, between 1982 and 1984, and in a sequence of eruptions that began in 2018 (Reed et al., 2021) and resulted in extensive damage to, and mortality of the surrounding trees. To characterize tree response to geyser activity over time, and the response of geyser activity to climate variability, aerial and ground imagery were analyzed to document changes in tree coverage around the geyser since 1954. Twenty samples of silicified tree remnants were collected from near the geyser vent for radiocarbon (14C) dating to determine if trees grew during periods when the geyser was...
The Eglington fault is one of several intrabasinal faults in the Las Vegas Valley, Nevada, USA, and is the only one recognized as a source for significant earthquakes. Its broad warp displaces Late Pleistocene spring deposits of the Las Vegas Formation, which record hydrologic fluctuations that occurred in response to millennial- and submillennial-scale climate oscillations throughout the late Quaternary. The sediments allow us to constrain the timing of displacement on the Eglington fault and identify hydrologic changes that are temporally coincident with that event. The fault deforms deposits that represent widespread marshes that filled the valley between ca. 31.7 and 27.6 ka. These marshes desiccated abruptly...
A regional synthesis of paleoflood chronologies on rivers in Arizona and southern Utah reveals that the largest floods over the last 5000 years cluster into distinct time periods that are related to regional and global climatic fluctuations. The flood chronologies were constructed using fine-grained slackwater deposits that accumulate in protected areas along the margins of bedrock canyons and selectively preserve evidence of the largest events. High-magnitude floods were frequent on rivers throughout the region from 5000 to 360014C yrs BP (dendrocalibrated age = 3800-2200 BC) and increased again after 2200 BP (400 BC), with particularly prominent peaks in magnitude and frequency around 1100-900 BP (AD 900?1100)...
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Elemental concentrations and stable oxygen and carbon isotope ratios are reported for five mammillary calcite specimens collected from the groundwater-filled fissures Devils Hole and Devils Hole II in the southern Amargosa Desert, south-western Nevada. Previous studies of these specimens yielded oxygen and carbon isotope chronologies of paleoclimatic and paleo hydrologic conditions over an approximately 500,000-year time period as defined by uranium series dates (Winograd and others, 1992, 2006; Landwehr and others, 1997, 2011). The elemental concentration measurements reveal additional chronologies in the mammillary calcite. The specimens were sampled by milling contiguous 0.050-inch-thick layers (1.27 millimeters)...
Although our current (1990) knowledge of hydrologic and hydraulic processes is based on many years of study, there are river environments where these processes are complex and poorly understood. One of these environments is in mountainous areas, which cover about 25 percent of the United States. Use of conventional hydrologic and hydraulic techniques in mountain-river environments may produce erroneous results and interpretations in a wide spectrum of water-resources investigations. An ongoing U.S. Geological Survey research project is being conducted to improve the understanding of hydrologic and hydraulic processes of mountainous areas and to improve the results of subsequent hydrologic investigations. Future...
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The Las Vegas Formation (LVF) is a well-characterized sequence of groundwater discharge (GWD) deposits exposed in and around the Las Vegas Valley in southern Nevada. Nearly monolithologic bedrock surrounds the valley and provides an excellent opportunity to test the hypothesis that GWD deposits include an aeolian component. Mineralogical data indicate that the LVF sediments are dominated by carbonate minerals, similar to the local bedrock, but silicate minerals are also present. The median particle size is ~35 µm, consistent with modern dust in the region, and magnetic properties contrast strongly with local bedrock, implying an extralocal origin. By combining geochemical data from the LVF sediments and modern dust,...
The expected moments algorithm (EMA) [Cohn et al., 1997] and the Bulletin 17B [Interagency Committee on Water Data, 1982] historical weighting procedure (B17H) for the log Pearson type III distribution are compared by Monte Carlo computer simulation for cases in which historical and/or paleoflood data are available. The relative performance of the estimators was explored for three cases: fixed-threshold exceedances, a fixed number of large floods, and floods generated from a different parent distribution. EMA can effectively incorporate four types of historical and paleoflood data: floods where the discharge is explicitly known, unknown discharges below a single threshold, floods with unknown discharge that exceed...
Mississippian paleokarst served as a dust trap for the oldest known Paleozoic loessite in North America. The early Pennsylvanian Molas Formation consists of loessite facies (sorted, angular, coarse-grained quartz siltstone), infiltration facies (loess redeposited as cave sediments within paleokarst features of the underlying Mississippian Leadville Limestone), colluvium facies (loess infiltrated into colluvium surrounding paleokarst towers) and fluvial facies (siltstone-rich, fluvial channel and floodplain deposits with paleosols). The depositional system evolved from an initial phase of infiltration and colluvium facies that were spatially and temporally related to the paleokarst surface, to loessite facies that...


    map background search result map search result map Data release for Climatically driven displacement on the Eglington fault, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA Supporting data for Aeolian sediments in paleowetland deposits of the Las Vegas Formation Elemental Concentrations and Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios in Mammillary Calcite from Devils Hole and Devils Hole II, Nevada, USA Data Release for Holocene Paleohydrology from alpine lake sediment, Emerald Lake, Wasatch Plateau of central Utah, USA Strontium and uranium isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr and 234U/238U) of mid- to late-Holocene lacustrine sediments from Lower Pahranagat Lake, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Nevada Radiocarbon dating of silicified wood from around Steamboat Geyser in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, 2021-2022 Data release for Climatically driven displacement on the Eglington fault, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA Strontium and uranium isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr and 234U/238U) of mid- to late-Holocene lacustrine sediments from Lower Pahranagat Lake, Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, Lincoln County, Nevada Data Release for Holocene Paleohydrology from alpine lake sediment, Emerald Lake, Wasatch Plateau of central Utah, USA Elemental Concentrations and Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios in Mammillary Calcite from Devils Hole and Devils Hole II, Nevada, USA Supporting data for Aeolian sediments in paleowetland deposits of the Las Vegas Formation