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Habitat valuation methods are most often developed and used to prioritize candidate lands for conservation. In this study the intent of habitat valuation was to inform was to inform the decision-making process for remediation of chemical contaminants on specific lands or surface water bodies. Methods were developed to summarize dimensions of habitat value for six representative aquatic and terrestrial contaminated sites at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) on the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Several general valuation metrics were developed for three broad categories; site use by groups of organisms, site rarity, and use value added from spatial context. Examples of...
The energy consumption and fossil CO2 emissions from the Canadian vegetable greenhouse industry were assessed using greenhouse statistics from 2002 to 2007. The fossil CO2 emissions were compared to the fossil CO2 emitted during transport of an equal weight of food by truck and by airplane from two horticultural production centers in the southern USA to four locations in Canada. The calculations in this paper for Canadian greenhouse energy use for heating were verified against farm energy use survey data collected from greenhouse operators in 1996. Allowing for extrapolations to 1996 from the 2002 to 2007 period, the survey data were underestimated by 12%. Since the survey data were not corrected for possible household...
We review recent global developments in three areas: energy efficiency, market transformation, and renewable energy. In each area we document policy applications and specific country experiences. We list Internet World Wide Web links for current information. Significant opportunities exist for cross-fertilizing initiatives from both developed and developing countries. For example, Thailand’s energy labelling program works significantly better than that of the US. Specific information is listed for many countries in Asia, Europe, and North America.
A new transportation demand model is described showing a simple data-base structure. It only requires input data referring to the fleets and the engine characteristics of the transportation park. The main characteristic of the model is its expertise in analysing the effects of different policies oriented to the reduction of the pollution levels and to the energy savings in the transportation sector. The results are provided both in terms of energy consumption and quantities of pollutant released to the environment. The effects of different transportation scenarios can be easily analysed using a simple "electronic sheet" way of representation.
As wind power development continues at a rapid pace in the United States, there is increasing interest in its economic impacts. Because good wind resources are typically far from electrical loads, wind power plants are often built in rural areas. The economic impacts that arise from building and operating a power plant can be significant but are often not considered by public utility commission processes. Although these impacts vary from state to state because of the differences in wind resource and state infrastructure, economic development from new wind provides important impacts from necessary power system expansion and should play a more prominent role in decision-making processes. This paper uses the National...
A new transportation demand model is described showing a simple data-base structure. It only requires input data referring to the fleets and the engine characteristics of the transportation park. The main characteristic of the model is its expertise in analysing the effects of different policies oriented to the reduction of the pollution levels and to the energy savings in the transportation sector. The results are provided both in terms of energy consumption and quantities of pollutant released to the environment. The effects of different transportation scenarios can be easily analysed using a simple "electronic sheet" way of representation.
More than 20 countries generate electricity from geothermal resources and about 60 countries make direct use of geothermal energy. A ten-fold increase in geothermal energy use is foreseeable at the current technology level. Geothermal Energy: An Alternative Resource for the 21st Century provides a readable and coherent account of all facets of geothermal energy development and summarizes the present day knowledge on geothermal resources, their exploration and exploitation. Accounts of geothermal resource models, various exploration techniques, drilling and production technology are discussed within 9 chapters, as well as important concepts and current technological developments.
This report surveys the definitions of reserve services used in several countries and regions of Europe and the United States that have implemented competitive electricity markets. It also compares the technical specifications of these services. The systems considered are Great Britain, PJM, California, Spain, The Netherlands, Germany, France, Belgium as well as UCTE as a whole.
More than 20 countries generate electricity from geothermal resources and about 60 countries make direct use of geothermal energy. A ten-fold increase in geothermal energy use is foreseeable at the current technology level. Geothermal Energy: An Alternative Resource for the 21st Century provides a readable and coherent account of all facets of geothermal energy development and summarizes the present day knowledge on geothermal resources, their exploration and exploitation. Accounts of geothermal resource models, various exploration techniques, drilling and production technology are discussed within 9 chapters, as well as important concepts and current technological developments.
The mitigation of atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions is important for minimizing the anthropogenic contributions to climate change. These concerns have led to the investigation of many technologies and strategies for mitigation, both in the U.S. and abroad. One technology explored at ANL is integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation, which is based on extraction of CO2 by a solvent. The IGCC process reduces CO2 production through efficient fuel use, which makes CO2 recovery less expensive than conventional systems. Recovery using the following solvents was explored in detail: monoethanolamine (MEA), glycol, chilled methanol, and hot potassium carbonate. Other incentive-based options for mitigation...
Regional systems, increased competition, and environmental imperatives are forcing a reallocation of state and federal regulatory responsibilities for the US electric power sector. The great extent of regional diversity in the sector raises a policy relevant empirical question. Is this diversity due to choice or circumstance? This paper finds circumstance to be a more significant determinant of fundamental performance than choice, but also finds evidence that decisions at the margin reflect the diverse preferences of regional policies. This suggests a continued role for (more responsive) state level regulation in order to satisfy diverse preferences. Uncertainty about the optimal endpoint of restructuring reinforces...
Some forms of renewable energy have long contributed to electricity generation, whereas others are just emerging. For example, large-scale hydropower is a mature technology generating about 16% of global electricity, and many smaller scale systems are also being installed worldwide. Future opportunities to improve the technology are limited but include upgrading of existing plants to gain greater performance efficiencies and reduced maintenance. Geothermal energy, widely used for power generation and direct heat applications, is also mature, but new technologies could improve plant designs, extend their lifetimes, and improve reliability. By contrast, ocean energy is an emerging renewable energy technology. Design,...
This report surveys the definitions of reserve services used in several countries and regions of Europe and the United States that have implemented competitive electricity markets. It also compares the technical specifications of these services. The systems considered are Great Britain, PJM, California, Spain, The Netherlands, Germany, France, Belgium as well as UCTE as a whole.
This paper analyzes the determinants and barriers of energy conservation investment behaviour. A number of barriers were found in a literature survey. A three-phase investment model on the micro level was constructed. Hypotheses derived from the model were empirically tested by analyzing a survey of more than 300 Dutch Firms. Economic variables seem to determine investment behaviour to a large extent.
Eight major industrial processes areresponsible for over 50% of industrial energy consumption in most countries. The energy efficiency of these processes was determined in a number of countries, with appropriate corrections for structural differences between countries. It is shown that considerable differences occur between countries, but that manufacturing industry in Eastern Europe in general is less efficient than in EU countries. In all cases efficiency is worse than what is technically and economically feasible. International comparisons provide information on energy efficiency differences, insight into technological differences between countries and into costs requirements for efficiency improvements. The...
More than 20 countries generate electricity from geothermal resources and about 60 countries make direct use of geothermal energy. A ten-fold increase in geothermal energy use is foreseeable at the current technology level. Geothermal Energy: An Alternative Resource for the 21st Century provides a readable and coherent account of all facets of geothermal energy development and summarizes the present day knowledge on geothermal resources, their exploration and exploitation. Accounts of geothermal resource models, various exploration techniques, drilling and production technology are discussed within 9 chapters, as well as important concepts and current technological developments.
This report surveys the definitions of reserve services used in several countries and regions of Europe and the United States that have implemented competitive electricity markets. It also compares the technical specifications of these services. The systems considered are Great Britain, PJM, California, Spain, The Netherlands, Germany, France, Belgium as well as UCTE as a whole.
In many ways, the mountain west (Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming) is an energy colony for the rest of the United States: it is rich in energy resources that are extracted to fuel economic growth in the wealthier and more populous coastal regions. Federal agencies and global corporations often behave as if the mountain west is a place to be exploited or managed for the benefit of customers and consumers elsewhere. Yet, the area. is not vast empty space with a limitless supply of natural resources, but rather a fast-growing region with a diverse economic base dependent on a limited supply of water. New decision processes and collaborations are slowly changing this situation,...
This report surveys the definitions of reserve services used in several countries and regions of Europe and the United States that have implemented competitive electricity markets. It also compares the technical specifications of these services. The systems considered are Great Britain, PJM, California, Spain, The Netherlands, Germany, France, Belgium as well as UCTE as a whole.