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Increasing the proportion of power derived from renewable energy sources is becoming an increasingly important part of many countries's strategies to achieve reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. However, renewable energy investments can often have external costs and benefits, which need to be taken into account if socially optimal investments are to be made. This paper attempts to estimate the magnitude of these external costs and benefits for the case of renewable technologies in Scotland, a country which has set particularly ambitious targets for expanding renewable energy. The external effects we consider are those on landscape quality, wildlife and air quality. We also consider the welfare implications of...
We present the results of a number of PV-grid matching simulations performed using hourly generation data from the Israel Electric Corporation (IEC) for the year 2006, together with corresponding meteorological data from Sede Boqer in the Negev Desert. The principal results of this investigation are: (1) the effective flexibility factor (ff) of the IEC grid was close to ff=0.65, but with a different plant operating strategy, ff could have been considerably higher; (2) for ff=0.65, the largest no-dump PV system could have provided only 2.7% of the annual demand, but for higher flexibilities - up to ff=1 - the percentage penetration could be as high as 17.4%; (3) considerable improvement in penetration can result...
This paper formulates an input-output method for determining the distributional consequences of energy development projects. The method is oriented to the conditions appearing in many contemporary development settings where large resident populations and other factors are likely to inhibit boomtown scenarios. An analysis of geothermal energy development in Imperial County, California, is presented. The results indicate that personal income inequality is likely to increase by several percentage points as measured by the Gini coefficient. The sensitivity of the results is examined with respect to important factors such as labor supply elasticities, preferential employment of local residents, and the concentration...
This paper formulates an input-output method for determining the distributional consequences of energy development projects. The method is oriented to the conditions appearing in many contemporary development settings where large resident populations and other factors are likely to inhibit boomtown scenarios. An analysis of geothermal energy development in Imperial County, California, is presented. The results indicate that personal income inequality is likely to increase by several percentage points as measured by the Gini coefficient. The sensitivity of the results is examined with respect to important factors such as labor supply elasticities, preferential employment of local residents, and the concentration...
A visual impact evaluation method specifically designed to assess landscape alteration as a result of surface mining and quarrying would represent a fundamental aid for both those involved in the early stages of mine planning and design (mining companies) and those in charge of controlling and verifying environmental impacts (government authorities). This research is based on implementation of the visual impact indicator Lvi, which takes into account two parameters among those physically measurable: the extent of visible alteration in the landscape and the chromatic contrast between bare rock and the surrounding environment. Both parameters can be quantified by processing one or more digital images taken from the...
The Southern Appalachian forest region of the U.S.-a region responsible for 23% of U.S. coal production-has 24 billion metric tons of high quality coal remaining of which mountaintop coal mining (MCM) will be the primary extraction method. Here we consider greenhouse gas emissions associated with MCM terrestrial disturbance in the life-cycle of coal energy production. We estimate disturbed forest carbon, including terrestrial soil and nonsoil carbon using published U.S. Environmental Protection Agency data of the forest floor removed and U.S. Department of Agriculture - Forest Service inventory data. We estimate the amount of previously buried geogenic organic carbon brought to the soil surface during MCM using...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Attitudes, Opinions, Trust, authority, citizens
This paper describes a part of our feasibility study on the storage of hydrogen in the form of clathrate hydrates. The specific objective of this paper is to present conceptual designs of hydrogen-hydrate production plants applicable to large-scale in situ storage of hydrogen produced in an industrial complex area or to smaller-scale urban-area storage of hydrogen which is to be transported from the industrial complex area by container trucks. The plants were so designed as to produce either a simple hydrogen hydrate under a pressure of 35 MPa and a temperature of 140 K or a mixed hydrogen + tetrahydrofuran hydrate under a pressure of 30 MPa and a temperature of 223 K. In either case, the rate of hydrogen uptake...
This paper describes a part of our feasibility study on the storage of hydrogen in the form of clathrate hydrates. The specific objective of this paper is to present conceptual designs of hydrogen-hydrate production plants applicable to large-scale in situ storage of hydrogen produced in an industrial complex area or to smaller-scale urban-area storage of hydrogen which is to be transported from the industrial complex area by container trucks. The plants were so designed as to produce either a simple hydrogen hydrate under a pressure of 35 MPa and a temperature of 140 K or a mixed hydrogen + tetrahydrofuran hydrate under a pressure of 30 MPa and a temperature of 223 K. In either case, the rate of hydrogen uptake...
We present the results of a number of PV-grid matching simulations performed using hourly generation data from the Israel Electric Corporation (IEC) for the year 2006, together with corresponding meteorological data from Sede Boqer in the Negev Desert. The principal results of this investigation are: (1) the effective flexibility factor (ff) of the IEC grid was close to ff=0.65, but with a different plant operating strategy, ff could have been considerably higher; (2) for ff=0.65, the largest no-dump PV system could have provided only 2.7% of the annual demand, but for higher flexibilities - up to ff=1 - the percentage penetration could be as high as 17.4%; (3) considerable improvement in penetration can result...
A visual impact evaluation method specifically designed to assess landscape alteration as a result of surface mining and quarrying would represent a fundamental aid for both those involved in the early stages of mine planning and design (mining companies) and those in charge of controlling and verifying environmental impacts (government authorities). This research is based on implementation of the visual impact indicator Lvi, which takes into account two parameters among those physically measurable: the extent of visible alteration in the landscape and the chromatic contrast between bare rock and the surrounding environment. Both parameters can be quantified by processing one or more digital images taken from the...