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Temporal and spatial sources of silica for chert remain poorly constrained. Modern sources to the worlds oceans include silica in rivers > aeolian (dust) deposition > sea floor vents and submarine weathering. However, changes in aridity and dust flux during the Phanerozoic may explain variations in the ocean silica cycle and times and places of chert formation. The chemistry of fine quartz dust (FQD) provides a chemical mechanism for the transformation of FQD to polymorphs of silica in chert; FQD is readily dissolved, then reprecipitated as Opal-A by either biotic or abiotic processes. An unequivocal relation between increases in dust flux and biogenic opal-A in the western Pacific Ocean during the past 200 kyr...
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This data release contains the U.S. salient statistics and world production data extracted from the GEMSTONES data sheet of the USGS Mineral Commodity Summaries 2022.
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This data release contains the U.S. salient statistics and world production data extracted from the GEMSTONES data sheet of the USGS Mineral Commodity Summaries 2024.
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This data release contains the U.S. salient statistics and world production data extracted from the GEMSTONES data sheet of the USGS Mineral Commodity Summaries 2023.


    map background search result map search result map USGS 1:24000-scale Quadrangle for Opal, WY 1969 USGS 1:24000-scale Quadrangle for Opal, WY 1969 The chemistry of eolian quartz dust and the origin of chert USGS 1:24000-scale Quadrangle for Opal, WY 1969 USGS 1:24000-scale Quadrangle for Opal, WY 1969 The chemistry of eolian quartz dust and the origin of chert