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Abstract The importance of snow and related cryospheric processes as an ecological factor has been recognized since at least the beginning of the twentieth century. Even today, however, many observations remain anecdotal. The research to date on cold-lands ecosystems results in scientists being unable to evaluate to what extent changes in the cryosphere will be characterized by abrupt changes in local and global biogeochemical cycles, and how these changes in seasonality may affect the rates and timing of key ecological processes. Studies of gas exchanges through snow have revealed that snow plays an important role in modulating wintertime soil biogeochemical processes, and that these can be the driving processes...
Forage production in irrigated mountain meadows plays a vital role in the livestock industry in Colorado and Wyoming. Mountain meadows are areas of intensive fertilization and irrigation which may impact regional CH4 and N2O fluxes. Nitrogen fertilization typically increases yields, but N-use efficiency is generally low. Neither the amount of fertilizer-N recovered by the forage nor the effect on N2O and CH4 emissions were known. These trace gases are long-lived in the atmosphere and contribute to global warming potential and stratospheric ozone depletion. From 1991 through 1993 studies were conducted to determine the effect of N source, and timing of N-fertilization on forage yield, N-uptake, and trace gas fluxes...
Nitrogen (N) losses from agriculture are negatively impacting groundwater, air, and surface water quality. National, state, and local policies and procedures that can mitigate these problems are needed. Market-based approaches where waste treatment plants (point sources) can purchase nutrient credits from upstream agricultural operations (non-point sources) to meet their National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit requirements within the Clean Water Act are being explored. This paper reviews these market-based approaches for enhancing air and water quality at a lower cost than simple command-and-control regulation, and describes new tools that are being developed, such as Nitrogen Trading Tool (NTT),...


map background search result map search result map Effects of N management on N2O and CH4 fluxes and15N