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Conclusions:Wetlands and riparian zones should be strategically placed in watersheds to optimize nitrogen removal, as, for example, in tile-drained farmlands prone to high concentrations of nitrateThresholds/Learnings:Restoring 10 million hectares of riparian zones and wetlands, representing 3.4% of the Mississippi River basin, would reduce nitrogen in the Mississippi River Basin and its tributaries by an average of 40%
Synopsis: Riparian buffers, the vegetated region adjacent to streams and wetlands, are thought to be effective at intercepting and reducing nitrogen loads entering water bodies. Riparian buffer width is thought to be positively related to nitrogen removal effectiveness by influencing nitrogen retention or removal. We surveyed the scientific literature containing data on riparian buffers and nitrogen concentration in streams and groundwater to identify trends between nitrogen removal effectiveness and buffer width, hydrological flow path, and vegetative cover. Nitrogen removal effectiveness varied widely. Wide buffers (.50 m) more consistently removed significant portions of nitrogen entering a riparian zone than...
Riparian zones can strongly influence the exchange of nutrients between streams and their watersheds. Most riparian studies have been done in mesic watersheds, which differ significantly from arid-land watersheds hydrologically. The goals of our work were to determine the strength and direction of hydrologic linkages between stream and riparian zone, and to estimate the extent of uptake of streamwater N by riparian trees in Sycamore Creek, a Sonoran Desert stream. Br? and 15NH4+ were added simultaneously to the surface stream to trace water and N from stream to riparian zone. Br? concentrations in riparian wells installed downstream of the release point increased during the addition, demonstrating a strong hydrologic...
Synopsis: This study summarized results of a comparative 15N-tracer study from a wide variety of sites throughout the United States, to derive general principles related to headwater streams and nitrogen dynamics. Standardized protocols were applied in 12 headwater streams representing a wide diversity of biomes throughout the United States. These sites were part of the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen eXperiment (LINX). The most rapid uptake and transformation of inorganic nitrogen occurred in the smallest streams. Ammonium entering these streams was removed within a few tens to hundreds of meters, primarily through assimilation by microorganisms, sorption to sediments, and nitrification. Nitrate was also removed from...

    map background search result map search result map Control of Nitrogen Export from Watersheds by Headwater Streams Control of Nitrogen Export from Watersheds by Headwater Streams