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The paper traces the manner in which an obligation came to be imposed on select industries, requiring them to take account of amenity, wildlife and outdoor-recreational interests in the course of preparing and carrying out developmental schemes. Under pressure from the relevant voluntary bodies, the statutory obligations, first imposed on hydro-electric power development, were generalized to cover 'whole' industries, and then, under the Countryside Acts of 1967-68, were extended to all State utilities. The recent privatization of those industries has provided a further pretext for extending and strengthening the 'amenity' clause. The approach has provided important insights into how industry itself might become...
This paper proposes a regional and sectoral model of global final energy demand. For the main end-use sectors of consumption (industrial, commercial and public services, residential and road transportation), per-capita demand is expressed as an S-shaped function of per-capita income. Other variables intervene as well, like energy prices, temperatures and technological trends. This model is applied on a panel of 101 countries and 3 aggregates (covering the whole world) and it explains fairly well past variations in sectoral, final consumption since the beginning of the 2000s. Further, the model is used to analyze the dynamics of final energy demand, by sector and in total. The main conclusion concerns the pattern...
To determine the dominant processes controlling nitrogen (N) dynamics in soils and increase insights into soil N cycling from nitrogen isotope (?15N) data, patterns of 15N enrichment in soil profiles were compiled from studies on tropical, temperate, and boreal systems. The maximum 15N enrichment between litter and deeper soil layers varied strongly with mycorrhizal fungal association, averaging 9.6 � 0.4? in ectomycorrhizal systems and 4.6 � 0.5? in arbuscular mycorrhizal systems. The 15N enrichment varied little with mean annual temperature, precipitation, or nitrification rates. One main factor controlling 15N in soil profiles, fractionation against 15N during N transfer by mycorrhizal fungi to host plants, leads...
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This thesis is an investigation of the biophysical controls on the three modes of methane (CH4 ) release from a boreal peatland: diffusion, plant-mediated transport and ebullition. My objectives were to (1) quantify the total CH4 flux of a permafrost thaw-affected peatland, (2) establish the relative importance of the three modes of CH4 release in these systems, and (3) identify key biotic and abiotic controls on individual transport mechanisms. Results showed that ebullition and plant-mediated transport were the dominant pathways for CH4 release and that traditional approaches for measuring total CH4 flux from peatland soils underestimated total efflux by not capturing ebullition. Further, results from a laboratory...
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The evolution of permafrost in cold regions is inextricably connected to hydrogeologic processes, climate, and ecosystems. Permafrost thawing has been linked to changes in wetland and lake areas, alteration of the groundwater contribution to streamflow, carbon release, and increased fire frequency. But detailed knowledge about the dynamic state of permafrost in relation to surface and groundwater systems remains an enigma. Here, we present the results of a pioneering 1,800 line-kilometer airborne electromagnetic survey that shows sediments deposited over the past 4 million years and the configuration of permafrost to depths of 100 meters in the Yukon Flats area near Fort Yukon, Alaska. The Yukon Flats is near the...
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Issue Title: Special Issue: Science Results from the Canadian International Polar Year 2007-2008 Tundra and taiga ecosystems comprise nearly 40 % of the terrestrial landscapes of Canada. These permafrost ecosystems have supported humans for more than 4500 years, and are currently home to ca. 115,000 people, the majority of whom are First Nations, Inuit and Métis. The responses of these ecosystems to the regional warming over the past 30-50 years were the focus of four Canadian IPY projects. Northern residents and researchers reported changes in climate and weather patterns and noted shifts in vegetation and other environmental variables. In forest-tundra areas tree growth and reproductive effort correlated with...
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Boreal regions contain more than half of the carbon in forested regions of the world and over 60% of the world's surface freshwater. Carbon storage and the flood control and water filtration provided by freshwaters and wetlands have recently been identified as the most important ecosystem services provided by boreal regions, with a value many times greater than current resource exploitation. Ecosystem services and sensitive ways of detecting their impairment have so far not been fully included in boreal conservation planning. Climate warming, via its effect on permafrost melting, insect damage, and forest fire, threatens to trigger large positive carbon feedbacks that may enhance the concentrations of greenhouse...
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This study is the second attempt to use the Basal Temperature of Snow (BTS) method to map permafrost in mountainous regions of northwestern Canada. It differs from the first study which took place in Wolf Creek in terms of (1) the methodology used to evaluate BTS, (2) the strategy used to avoid spatial autocorrelation in residuals, and (3) the climatic regions investigated. Two study areas, part of the Ruby Range (61° 12' N, 138° 19' W) and Haines Summit (59° 37' N, 136° 27' W) were selected for BTS sampling based on differing climatic conditions and previous knowledge of permafrost elevations from active rock glaciers. A total of 30 BTS measurements were made in the Ruby Range in the winter of 2006 and a total...
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Detailed observations of stream, soil, and groundwater chemistry were used to determine the role of fire, permafrost and snowmelt processes on the fluxes of carbon, nitrogen and major solutes from interior Alaskan catchments. We examined an experimentally burned watershed and two reference watersheds that differ in permafrost coverage (high, 53%; medium-burn, 18%; and low, 4%) during the FROSTFIRE prescribed burn in July 1999. The fire elevated stream nitrate concentrations for a short period during the first post-fire storm, but nitrate declined thereafter, suggesting that less severe fires that leave an intact riparian zone may have only a short-term effect on stream chemistry. Nevertheless, we found fundamental...
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Pogo Mine Project: An Introduction The Project: The proposed Pogo Gold Mine would be located about 38 miles northeast of Delta Junction, Alaska, near the Goodpaster River (see figure 1). Teck-Pogo, Inc., the "applicant," plans to develop the mine on state-owned land. It would be an underground mine with a surface mill producing up to 500,000 ounces of gold each year. The applicant hopes to begin construction in 2002, and proposes to operate the mine 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, for about 12 years. This predicted mine-life is based on existing information; on-going exploration could increase the life of the mine. The project would employ up to 385 employees. Workers would be housed on site. An airstrip would...
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This paper examines changes in climate with respect to permafrost and engineering design in Arctic regions. Current understanding of climate changes, predictive modeling, and climate data were studied. Inconsistencies and differences were noted, discussed, and evaluated using comparisons of the resulting climate data and graphs. A graphical analysis was done to compare different methods of data analysis and different visual interpretations of historical climate trends. The graphical analyses in this paper should be used as a guide for determining the accuracy of thermal design parameters applied to current project designs. The methodology used to evaluate raw data can greatly affect the output values used in design....
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Permanent electrode arrays were set up at ten monitoring sites from Whitehorse, Yukon, to Fort St. John, British Columbia, in order to gain a clearer perspective of the effectiveness of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) monitoring over an annual cycle of freezing and thawing. This research forms part of a longer-term project that is attempting to use ERT to examine changes in permafrost resulting from climate change. Inter-site and intra-site variability were examined by installing and maintaining data-loggers to monitor active layer and shallow permafrost temperatures, air temperatures, and snow depths at each site from August 2010-August 2011. Additional site information was collected on each ERT survey...
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We investigated spatial variability in the community structure of stream macroinvertebrates at six reaches within Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed in the Alaskan taiga forest. Stream reaches differed most notably in river continuum position (stream orders 1–4) and influence of permafrost. Permafrost may underly much of an entire watershed or may be only locally present in valley bottoms. Permafrost distribution influences hydrology, water temperature, and riparian vegetation. We sampled benthic macroinvertebrates six times during the ice-free season between June 1995 and June 1996. Mean invertebrate abundance (range: 1160–14494 individuals/ m2) was significantly different among sites, the lower values occurring...


map background search result map search result map Effects of observed and experimental climate change on terrestrial ecosystems in northern Canada: results from the Canadian IPY program Sensitivity of northern peatland carbon dynamics to Holocene climate change Airborne electromagnetic imaging of discontinuous permafrost The effect of fire and permafrost interactions on soil carbon accumulation in an upland black spruce ecosystem of interior Alaska: implications for post-thaw carbon loss Physical and ecological controls on methane release from a boreal peatland in interior Alaska Exploring the sensitivity of soil carbon dynamics to climate change, fire disturbance and permafrost thaw in a black spruce ecosystem Seasonal cycling in electrical resistivities at ten thin permafrost sites, southern Yukon and northern British Columbia Validation of the Basal Temperature of Snow (BTS) method to map permafrost in complex mountainous terrain, Ruby Range, Yukon Territory and Haines Summit, British Columbia “The Worst Thing We Had To Contend With”: Permafrost and Construction of the Alcan Highway Geometry of oriented lakes in Old Crow Flats, northern Yukon Comprehensive conservation planning to protect biodiversity and ecosystem services in Canadian boreal regions under a warming climate and increasing exploitation Export of carbon, nitrogen and major solutes from a boreal forest watershed: The influence of fire and permafrost Landscape patterns and stream reaches in the Alaskan taiga forest: potential roles of permafrost in differentiating macroinvertebrate communities POGO Gold Mine EIS/NEPA Project Progress in space-borne studies of permafrost for climate science: Towards a multi-ECV approach POGO Gold Mine EIS/NEPA Project Landscape patterns and stream reaches in the Alaskan taiga forest: potential roles of permafrost in differentiating macroinvertebrate communities Validation of the Basal Temperature of Snow (BTS) method to map permafrost in complex mountainous terrain, Ruby Range, Yukon Territory and Haines Summit, British Columbia Physical and ecological controls on methane release from a boreal peatland in interior Alaska Export of carbon, nitrogen and major solutes from a boreal forest watershed: The influence of fire and permafrost Exploring the sensitivity of soil carbon dynamics to climate change, fire disturbance and permafrost thaw in a black spruce ecosystem Geometry of oriented lakes in Old Crow Flats, northern Yukon Airborne electromagnetic imaging of discontinuous permafrost Seasonal cycling in electrical resistivities at ten thin permafrost sites, southern Yukon and northern British Columbia “The Worst Thing We Had To Contend With”: Permafrost and Construction of the Alcan Highway The effect of fire and permafrost interactions on soil carbon accumulation in an upland black spruce ecosystem of interior Alaska: implications for post-thaw carbon loss Effects of observed and experimental climate change on terrestrial ecosystems in northern Canada: results from the Canadian IPY program Sensitivity of northern peatland carbon dynamics to Holocene climate change Progress in space-borne studies of permafrost for climate science: Towards a multi-ECV approach Comprehensive conservation planning to protect biodiversity and ecosystem services in Canadian boreal regions under a warming climate and increasing exploitation