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Energy autarky is presented as a conceptual framework for implementing sustainable regional development based on the transformation of the energy subsystem. It is conceptualized as a situation in which the energy services used for sustaining local consumption, local production and the export of goods and services are derived from locally renewable energy resources. Technically, the implementation of higher degrees of energy autarky rests on increasing energy efficiency, realizing the potential of renewable energy resources and relying on a decentralized energy system. Practically, a transition towards regional energy autarky requires administrations and civil society actors to initialize and develop projects at...
The primary supposition about renewable forms of energy is that use of such resources will not result in depletion or exhaustion. While it is true that natural energy flows such as sun and wind are not directly subject to degradation by use, there may still be indirect limitations on renewability. The exploitation of natural energy flows may require that systems of nonrenewable "support" resources be used to capture, store, and convert natural energy into useful forms. Poor resource management practices that degrade the support resources may therefore, in effect, endanger renewability. Biomass is an illustrative case of a renewable energy resource with nonrenewable support components. The soil and water management...
The primary supposition about renewable forms of energy is that use of such resources will not result in depletion or exhaustion. While it is true that natural energy flows such as sun and wind are not directly subject to degradation by use, there may still be indirect limitations on renewability. The exploitation of natural energy flows may require that systems of nonrenewable "support" resources be used to capture, store, and convert natural energy into useful forms. Poor resource management practices that degrade the support resources may therefore, in effect, endanger renewability. Biomass is an illustrative case of a renewable energy resource with nonrenewable support components. The soil and water management...
Joseph A. Dammel, Jeffrey M. Bielicki, Melisa F. Pollak, and Elizabeth J. Wilson at the University of Minnesota Center for Science, Technology, and Public Policy have published a feature article titled “A Tale of Two Technologies: Hydraulic Fracturing and Geologic Carbon Sequestration” that appears in the online version of the science journal, Environmental Science & Technology [subscription required]. In comparing, contrasting, and analyzing the regulatory landscape governing the use of hydraulic fracturing and geologic carbon sequestration, they conclude that “A shift toward a 21st Century vision of regulation is required. Hydraulic fracturing and geologic sequestration are both technologies that could reduce...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: coal, dynamics, investment, model, system
Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) has come to dominate millions of hectares of rangeland in the Intermountain western United States. Previous studies have hypothesized that one mechanism conferring a competitive advantage to this species is the ability to germinate rapidly at low temperatures in the fall, winter and spring and, therefore, initiate growth and establishment more rapidly than more desirable perennial bunchgrass species. In this experiment, we developed thermal-germination-response models for multiple seedlots of cheatgrass and five perennial grass species. We conducted sensitivity analysis on potential-cumulative-germination response to a 38-year simulation of field-variable conditions of seedbed temperature...
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Raster Results of Near-Term Landscape Intactness Model (LIM) at 100 meter resolution. One important model developed for the Landscape Assessment to assist in the evaluation of Conservation Element status and trends is the Landscape Intactness Model (LIM). This model builds on a growing body of existing composite scoring methods that aim to characterize the relative ecological condition of landscapes. This model uses indicators of human modification to provide a measurable way to characterize intactness. Indicators and their scores were selected for the Landscape Intactness Model based upon knowledge of their amount and distribution in the study area and understood level of impact to natural systems. The Landscape...
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These data were released prior to the October 1, 2016 effective date for the USGS’s policy dictating the review, approval, and release of scientific data as referenced in USGS Survey Manual Chapter 502.8 Fundamental Science Practices: Review and Approval of Scientific Data for Release. This digital dataset defines the spring 1961 water-table altitude for the California's Central Valley. It was used to initiate the water-level altitudes for the upper zones of the transient hydrologic model of the Central Valley flow system. The Central Valley encompasses an approximate 50,000 square-kilometer region of California. The complex hydrologic system of the Central Valley is simulated using the USGS numerical modeling...
Tags: Alameda County, Amador County, Butte County, CV-RASA, Calaveras County, All tags...
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These data were released prior to the October 1, 2016 effective date for the USGS’s policy dictating the review, approval, and release of scientific data as referenced in USGS Survey Manual Chapter 502.8 Fundamental Science Practices: Review and Approval of Scientific Data for Release. This digital dataset defines the depth of the Corcoran Clay Member of the Tulare Formation. The complex hydrologic system of the Central Valley is simulated using the USGS numerical modeling code MODFLOW-FMP (Schmid and others, 2006b). This simulation is referred to here as the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM) (Faunt, 2009). Utilizing MODFLOW-FMP, the CVHM simulates groundwater and surface-water flow, irrigated agriculture,...
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These data were released prior to the October 1, 2016 effective date for the USGS’s policy dictating the review, approval, and release of scientific data as referenced in USGS Survey Manual Chapter 502.8 Fundamental Science Practices: Review and Approval of Scientific Data for Release. This digital dataset defines the model grid and altitudes of the top of the 10 model layers and base of the model simulated in the transient hydrologic model of the Central Valley flow system. The Central Valley encompasses an approximate 50,000 square-kilometer region of California. The complex hydrologic system of the Central Valley is simulated using the USGS numerical modeling code MODFLOW-FMP (Schmid and others, 2006), which...
Tags: Alameda County, Amador County, Butte County, CV-RASA, Calaveras County, All tags...
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These data were released prior to the October 1, 2016 effective date for the USGS’s policy dictating the review, approval, and release of scientific data as referenced in USGS Survey Manual Chapter 502.8 Fundamental Science Practices: Review and Approval of Scientific Data for Release. This digital dataset contains the surface-water network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM). The Central Valley encompasses an approximate 50,000-square-kilometer region of California. The complex hydrologic system of the Central Valley is simulated using the USGS numerical modeling code MODFLOW-FMP (Schmid and others, 2006). This simulation is referred to here as the CVHM (Faunt, 2009). Utilizing MODFLOW-FMP, the CVHM...
Tags: Alameda County, Amador County, Butte County, CV-RASA, Calaveras County, All tags...
This community serves to document data and analysis collected by researchers within the Upper Midwest Water Science Center whose mission is to collect high-quality hydrologic data and conduct unbiased, scientifically sound studies of water resources within the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi Basins. We strive to meet the changing needs of those who use our information—from the distribution, availability, and quality of our water resources to topic-oriented research that addresses current hydrological issues.
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Change in the majority generalized vegetation type for each HUC5 watershed between historical (1971-2000) and future (2071-2100) time periods. The MC1 dynamic vegetation model was run under the CSIRO, MIROC, and Hadley climate change projections and the A2 anthropogenic emissions scenario. Majority generalized vegetation type was determined for each HUC5 watershed from from original ~ 4 km raster data. Generalized vegetation types were assigned by combining detailed MC1 vegetation classes into four general catagories: desert, grassland, shrubland, and forest. Watersheds represent 5th level (HUC5, 10-digit) hydrologic unit boundaries and were acquired from the Natural Resources Conservation Service. Background:...
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This dataset represents the average amount of live tree carbon for each HUC5 watershed, simulated by the model MC1 for the 30-year period 1971-2000. Simulated mean live forest carbon (output variable C_Forestyr in MC1 version B60, which includes both above and below-ground tree carbon) was determined for each HUC5 watershed. Units are grams per square meter. Watersheds represent 5th level (HUC5, 10-digit) hydrologic unit boundaries and were acquired from the Natural Resources Conservation Service. Background: The dynamic global vegetation model MC1 (see Bachelet et al. 2001) was used to simulate vegetation dynamics, associated carbon and nitrogen cycle, water budget, and wild fire impacts for OR, WA, AZ and...
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Percent change in the mean area burned per year (per ~4 km pixel) for each HUC5 watershed between historical (1971-2000) and future (2071-2100) time periods. The MC1 dynamic vegetation model was run under the CSIRO, MIROC, and Hadley climate change projections and the A2 anthropogenic emissions scenario. Mean area burned per year per ~4 km pixel (in square meters), was determined for each HUC5 watershed. Watersheds represent 5th level (HUC5, 10-digit) hydrologic unit boundaries and were acquired from the Natural Resources Conservation Service. Background: The dynamic global vegetation model MC1 (see Bachelet et al. 2001) was used to simulate vegetation dynamics, associated carbon and nitrogen cycle, water...
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For his MS thesis, Brendan Rogers used the vegetation model MC1 to simulate vegetation dynamics, associated carbon and nitrogen cycle, water budget and wild fire impacts across the western 2/3 of the states of Oregon and Washington using climate input data from the PRISM group (Chris Daly, OSU) at a 30arc second (800m) spatial grain. The model was run from 1895 to 2100 assuming that nitrogen demand from the plants was always met so that the nitrogen concentrations in various plant parts never dropped below their minimum reported values. A CO2 enhancement effect increased productivity and water use efficiency as the atmospheric CO2 concentration increased. Future climate change scenarios were generated through statistical...
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For his MS thesis, Brendan Rogers used the vegetation model MC1 to simulate vegetation dynamics, associated carbon and nitrogen cycle, water budget and wild fire impacts across the western 2/3 of the states of Oregon and Washington using climate input data from the PRISM group (Chris Daly, OSU) at a 30arc second (800m) spatial grain. The model was run from 1895 to 2100 assuming that nitrogen demand from the plants was always met so that the nitrogen concentrations in various plant parts never dropped below their minimum reported values. A CO2 enhancement effect increased productivity and water use efficiency as the atmospheric CO2 concentration increased. Future climate change scenarios were generated through statistical...
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This dataset represents the average amount of Growing Degree Days (GDD) per year within each HUC5 watershed, simulated by the model MC1 for the 30-year period 1971-2000. Growing degree days (referenced to 0oC) (unit = deg C days) were determined for each HUC5 watershed. Watersheds represent 5th level (HUC5, 10-digit) hydrologic unit boundaries. They were acquired from the Natural Resources Conservation Service. Background: The dynamic global vegetation model MC1 (see Bachelet et al. 2001) was used to simulate vegetation dynamics, associated carbon and nitrogen cycle, water budget, and wild fire impacts for OR, WA, AZ and NM, for a project funded by the USDA Forest Service (PNW 09-JV-11261900-003). The MC1 model...
What are current conditions for important park natural resources? What are the critical data and knowledge gaps? What are some of the factors that are influencing park resource conditions? Natural Resource Condition Assessments (NRCAs) evaluate and report on the above for a subset of important natural resources in national park units (hereafter, parks). Focal study resources and indicators are selected on a park-by-park basis, guided by use of structured resource assessment and reporting frameworks. Considerations include park resource setting and enabling legislation (what are this park's most important natural resources?) and presently available data and expertise (what can be evaluated at this time?). In addition...
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Natural landscapes in the Southwestern United States are changing. In recent decades, rising temperatures and drought have led to drier conditions, contributed to large-scale ecological impacts, and affected many plant and animal species across the region. The current and future trajectory of climate change underscores the need for managers and conservation professionals to understand the impacts of these patterns on natural resources. In this regional assessment of the Southwest Climate Change Initiative, we evaluate changes in annual average temperatures from 1951–2006 across major habitats and large watersheds and compare these changes to the number of species of conservation concern that are found within these...


map background search result map search result map Historical Growing Degree Days (average 1971-2000) for OR and WA, USA Simulated change in generalized vegetation types between historical and future time periods under three climate change projections for OR and WA, USA Simulated historical live forest carbon (1971-2000) for OR and WA, USA Simulated percent change in area burned between historical and future time periods under three climate change projections for OR and WA, USA Simulated PNW biomass consumed (g C/m2) under MIROC 3.2 medres A2 (2070-2099 average) Simulated runoff under MIROC 3.2 medres A2 (2070-2099 average) in nillimeters for the Pacific Northwest, USA Natural Resource Condition Assessments Managing Changing Landscapes in the Southwestern United States Upper Midwest Water Science Center BLM REA SLV 2013 LIM N 100m Spring 1961 water table of California's Central Valley (from Williamson and others, 1989) Contours of Corcoran Clay Depth in feet from Page (1986) for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM) Surface-Water Network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM) Altitudes of the top of model layers in the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM) BLM REA SLV 2013 LIM N 100m Contours of Corcoran Clay Depth in feet from Page (1986) for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM) Surface-Water Network for the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM) Spring 1961 water table of California's Central Valley (from Williamson and others, 1989) Altitudes of the top of model layers in the Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM) Simulated PNW biomass consumed (g C/m2) under MIROC 3.2 medres A2 (2070-2099 average) Simulated runoff under MIROC 3.2 medres A2 (2070-2099 average) in nillimeters for the Pacific Northwest, USA Simulated percent change in area burned between historical and future time periods under three climate change projections for OR and WA, USA Managing Changing Landscapes in the Southwestern United States Historical Growing Degree Days (average 1971-2000) for OR and WA, USA Simulated change in generalized vegetation types between historical and future time periods under three climate change projections for OR and WA, USA Simulated historical live forest carbon (1971-2000) for OR and WA, USA Upper Midwest Water Science Center Natural Resource Condition Assessments