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The seemingly irresistible growth of motorised transport and its environmental effects have led the NRP to also put mobility and transport (M & T) on its agenda. NRP questions are focused on psychosocial factors and mechanisms underlying the popularity of motorised transport, and on technical as well as behavioural measures and strategies to reduce global air pollution stemming from mobility and the use of motor vehicles. In Phase 1 of the programme, five NRP-funded Mssss & T projects have been conducted. Together with one or two related projects, these will be briefly summarised and commented upon. General observations, conclusions and some suggestions will be provided at the end of this paper.
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The effects of climate change have the potential to impact slope stability. Negative impacts are expected to be greatest at high northerly latitudes where degradation of permafrost in rock and soil, debuttressing of slopes as a result of glacial retreat, and changes in ocean ice-cover are likely to increase the susceptibility of slopes to landslides. In the United States, the greatest increases in air temperature and precipitation are expected to occur in Alaska. In order to assess the impact that these environmental changes will have on landslide size (magnitude), mobility, and frequency, inventories of historical landslides are needed. These inventories provide baseline data that can be used to identify changes...
Two field studies revealed large differences among various subgroups in the population of car drivers. Private drivers, commuters, and business drivers differed strongly with respect to current decisions and behaviour which affect CO2 emissions, and with respect to their sensitivity to various policy instruments. Several promising policy targets were identified" combinations of user groups and behaviours where substantial CO2 reduction may be achieved. The sensitivity of different car user groups to various policy measures showed whether and how desired behavioral changes may be realised.
The possible impacts of a climatic change associated with an increase in CO2 on the hydrology of forests is evaluated by applying sensitivity analysis and a climatic scenario to a one-dimensional model. Water consumption of forests is affected by changes in plant physiology and meteorological environment. Changes in species composition are not taken into account. Increase in CO2 leads to a decrease of stomatal conductance, resulting in a decrease in transpiration of 10-30%. The evaporation of rainfall interception by the canopy is increased due to a higher leaf area index and higher temperatures. Application of a wet scenario shows an increase in total interception, but the ratio between interception and precipitation...
Chemical conditions were perturbed in an aquifer with an ambient pH of 5.9 and wastewater-derived adsorbed zinc (Zn) and phosphate (P) contamination by injecting a pulse of amended groundwater. The injected groundwater had low concentrations of dissolved Zn and P, a pH value of 4.5 resulting from equilibration with carbon dioxide gas, and added potassium bromide (KBr). Downgradient of the injection, breakthrough of nonreactive Br and total dissolved carbonate concentrations in excess of ambient values (excess TCO2) were accompanied by a decrease in pH values and over twentyfold increases in dissolved Zn concentrations above preinjection values. Peak concentrations of Br and excess TCO2 were followed by slow increases...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: metal ion, mobility, sorption


    map background search result map search result map Inventory of rock avalanches in western Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, 1984-2016: a baseline data set for evaluating the impact of climate change on avalanche magnitude, mobility, and frequency Inventory of rock avalanches in western Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, 1984-2016: a baseline data set for evaluating the impact of climate change on avalanche magnitude, mobility, and frequency