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Synopsis: In an attempt to better characterize the influence of human settlement patterns on wolf distribution, this paper examined how radio-collared gray wolves responded to different road types and human presence at the boundaries of Kenai National Wildlife Refuge in south-central Alaska. Wolves tended to avoid oilfield access roads that were open to the public, but were attracted to gated pipeline access roads and secondary gravel roads with limited human use. The low use access and secondary roads likely provided an easy travel corridor for wolves. Prior to intensive trapping and hunting from 1978-1979, wolves demonstrated little territorial adjustment in response to a heavily used highway. However, only after...
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Conclusions: Grizzly bears can use roaded habitats, but spatial avoidance will increase and survival will decrease as traffic levels, road densities and human settlement increases. Road density standards and road closure programmes should be developed and that these programmes incorporate seasonal habitat requirements of grizzly bears. Thresholds/Learnings: More than 80% of bear sitings occurred in blocks of undisturbed habitat >900 ha Synopsis: The study examined the relationships between grizzly bears, habitat and roads in the Swan Mountains, Montana. The study showed complex spatial and temporal relationships between grizzly bears and habitat resources. Resource selection was expressed relative to strength...
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Synopsis: This report evaluates habitat requirements of the American badger according to parameters of soil texture, graminoid cover, slope, and proximity to roads. Badgers tend to prefer sandy loam and silty loam, medium and moderately coarse textured soils. In terms of graminoid coverage, badgers generally prefer open grassland habitat, but can also be found in agriculturally dominated landscapes containing isolated pockets of Richardson 's ground squirrel colonies. Graminoid coverage of 23% was chosen as the minimum requirement for suitable badger habitat. As slope increases, habitat suitability decreases to a point at which the likelihood of badgers existing there (i.e. cliffs and badlands) is extremely low...
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Synopsis: A review of the scientific literature describing the effects of linear developments on wildlife, especially large mammals, was provided. Of particular interest were the types of roads and linear developments created by the oil and pipeline industries in western Canada. The effects of linear developments (roads, powerline/pipeline rights-of-way, deforested strips) on wildlife were examined in the context of regional and landscape ecology. The review describes the different classes of linear disturbances, the various response categories for animal species and the impacts on species for the different classes. The review also provides potential mitigations and recommendations for landscape scale planning...
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Conclusions: Grizzly bears avoid high volume roads (25,000 vehicles/day). High quality habitat determines movement decisions relative to roads. Grizzly bears will cross high volume roads to access high-quality habitat. Grizzly bears use areas close to roads more than expected, in particular low-volume roads (10,000 vehicles/day). Prevent loss of habitat connectivity with the following mitigation: maintain high-quality habitat adjacent to roads, install continuous highway fencing and create wildlife passages. Thresholds/Learnings: Synopsis: The study examined the relationships among grizzly bears, their habitats and roads in Banff National Park, a protected area characterized by a major transportation corridor. This...
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Synopsis: This paper summarizes significant findings from literature related to the effect of noise on wildlife, emphasizing the effects of road traffic noise on birds. Many studies from the United States and the Netherlands indicate that road noise has a negative effect on bird populations, particularly during breeding season in a variety of species. In this paper, ‘effect distances’—distances at which bird density decreases—are reported at a range of two to three thousand meters from the road. Effect distances tend to increase with traffic density, being the greatest near large, multilane highways. In a study of woodland species, 26 of 43 (60%) were found to show a decrease in population densities with effect...
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Synopsis: This study examined the spatial patterns and factors influencing small terrestrial vertebrate road-kill aggregations in the Bow River Valley of Alberta, Canada. Mammal and bird road-kill indices were consistently higher on low volume parkway roads than on the high-speed, high volume Trans-Canada highway (TCH). Birds were more vulnerable to collisions than mammals on the TCH. Low volume parkway road-kills were less likely to occur on raised sections of road, and tended to occur close to vegetative cover far from wildlife passages and culverts. Highway sections with forested medians were less significant barriers to forest birds than open grassy medians. Since forest dwelling birds are reluctant to cross...
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Conclusions: Caribou mortalities attributed to wolf predation were generally closer to a corridor, indicating that linear corridors may enhance wolf predation efficiency. Therefore, caribou existing closer to linear corridors are at a higher risk of depredation than those farther from corridors. Thresholds/Learnings: Synopsis: This study tested the hypothesis that linear corridors affect caribou and wolf activities by examining the distribution of telemetry locations of caribou and wolves, as well as locations of caribou mortality and caribou predation by wolves relative to linear corridors caused by roads, seismic lines, power lines, and pipeline rights-of-way. Caribou mortalities attributed to wolf predation...
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Conclusions: Elk consistently selected for big basin sagebrush, greasewood, and tree cover; and consistently selected against Wyoming sagebrush, mixed shrub, and bare ground/sand. Selection patterns were similar during the winter, except big basin sagebrush and mixed shrubs were selected in proportion to their availability. Elk tend to prefer areas characterized by edge habitat where quality forage and cover habitats are in close proximity to one another. Thresholds/Learnings: Elk use was highest in summer in areas characterized by diverse habitats and >2800m away from major roads. High use areas during winter were similar, although elk tended to use areas slightly closer to roads (>2100m away), which is largely...
Synopsis: This book addresses issues of landscape fragmentation and ecology emanating from the construction and use of roads. The text highlights ecosystem implications of this type of linear disturbance in relation to the following topics: · Roads, vehicles, and transportation planning · Vegetation and roadsides · Wildlife populations and collision mortality · Water, sediment, and chemical flows · Aquatic ecosystems · Wind, noise, and atmospheric effects · Road networks and landscape fragmentation Conclusions: Book addresses issues of landscape fragmentation and ecology emanating from the construction and use of roads. The text highlights ecosystem implications...
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Conclusions: Elk habitat selection ratios varied in response to road pattern. Regularly spaced roads negatively influenced habitat selection, whereas a clumped pattern supported larger blocks of road-free habitat. Road density threshold at which elk could still occur in high numbers: 1.5 km/km⊃2; Thresholds/Learnings: Road density threshold at which elk could still occur in high numbers: 1.5 km/km⊃2; Synopsis: This study tested 3 aspects of an elk road density model to determine patterns of elk behavior relative to road density and configuration. The study compared model predictions with observed values of elk habitat selection at varying levels of road density. It also compared the effect of different spatial...
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Conclusions: Seismic cutline proportion did not explain landscape use by grizzly bears, but secondary effects of cutlines on landscape structure did. Declining use was mainly associated with increasing proportions of closed forest, and increasing variation of inter-patch distances, while use was mainly increasing with increasing mean patch size. Thresholds/Learnings: Bears appear to use areas more when landscape patches tend to be larger, and mean patch size is generally reduced with additional seismic cutlines. Also, bears appear to use areas more when landscape patches are consistently spaced, and the spacing between landscape patches becomes more variable with additional seismic cutlines. Synopsis: This study...
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Synopsis: The study examined the effects of road networks on suburbanizing ecosystems, using grassland bird distribution to explore the relative ecological importance of variables relative to linear disturbances and the effect of road traffic volumes. The study found that roads primarily affect ecological variables for 1) distance from road and 2) habitat patch size. The study also found that road traffic volumes are correlated to avian distribution, suggesting that traffic volumes have an ecological effect. The research suggests that traffic noise is the primary ecological effect of roads and that roads with higher traffic volumes extend the road effect zone outwards of 100 m and up to 1,200 m. Given the ecological...


    map background search result map search result map Distribution of caribou and wolves in relation to linear corridors Elk distribution and modeling in relation to roads Seasonal distribution and habitat use patterns of elk in the Jack Morrow Hills Planning Area Synthesis of noise effects on wildlife populations. Road traffic and nearby grassland bird patterns in a suburbanizing landscape. Gray wolf response to refuge boundaries and roads in Alaska. Relationships among grizzly bears, highways, and habitat in Banff-Bow Valley, Alberta, Canada. Seismic cutlines, changing landscape metrics, and grizzly bear landscape use in Alberta Relationships among grizzly bears, roads, and habitat in the Swan Mountains, Montana. The Effects of Linear Developments on Wildlife: A Review of Selected Scientific Literature Spatial patterns and factors influencing small vertebrate fauna road-kill aggregations. American Badger. Elk distribution and modeling in relation to roads Road traffic and nearby grassland bird patterns in a suburbanizing landscape. Seasonal distribution and habitat use patterns of elk in the Jack Morrow Hills Planning Area Seismic cutlines, changing landscape metrics, and grizzly bear landscape use in Alberta Relationships among grizzly bears, roads, and habitat in the Swan Mountains, Montana. Distribution of caribou and wolves in relation to linear corridors Gray wolf response to refuge boundaries and roads in Alaska. Spatial patterns and factors influencing small vertebrate fauna road-kill aggregations. Synthesis of noise effects on wildlife populations. The Effects of Linear Developments on Wildlife: A Review of Selected Scientific Literature