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This article offers a critical review of eight tradable permit markets: water permits at Fox River, Wisconsin; the U.S. leaded gasoline phase-out; sulfur dioxide credits under the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990; the Regional Clean Air Incentives Market (RECLAIM) for controlling ozone and acid rain in Southern California; renewable energy credit trading at the regional level in the United States; individual transferrable quotas for fisheries at the national level in New Zealand; carbon credits traded under the European Union-Emissions Trading Scheme; and carbon offsets permitted under the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol. By "critical" the article does not fully weigh the costs and benefits...
Many governments mandate the blending of biofuels with fossil fuel supplies. The paper raises the possibility that some firms might choose not to respect such mandates, and cites the UK's experience, where a buyout of the obligation is possible. A simple economic framework is then used to explore some implications of mandate buyouts, including situations when buyouts and road-fuel-tax rebates are applied together. Finally, it discusses the design of buyout-mandate schemes that could release raw materials from biofuel production, following a future world food price shock.
This project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using geothermal effluents for developing and maintaining waterfowl wetlands. Information in the document pertains to a seven State area the West where geothermal resources have development potential. Information is included on physiochemical characteristics of geothermal effluents; known effects of constituents in the water on a wetland ecosystem and water quality criteria for maintaining a viable wetland; potential of sites for wetland development and disposal of effluent water from geothermal facilities; methods of ‘disposal of effluents, including advantages of each method and associated costs; legal and Institutional constraints which could affect geothermal...
Electric and magnetic fields were measured during the summer of 1998 in south-central Ontario within the business district of 60 communities, ranging in size from 1000 to 2.3 million people. The mean magnetic flux density for the 60 communities was 5.8 mG. Communities with larger populations generally had higher magnetic flux densities than those with smaller populations.Communities with populations above 100 000, between 50 000 and 100 000, between 10 000 and 50 000, and less than 10 000 had mean magnetic flux densities of 14, 7, 4 and 2.4 mG, respectively. The city of Kingston, population 123 000, had the highest mean magnetic flux density (47 mG) while Burks Falls, population 1000, had the lowest (0.8 mG).Mor...
Many governments mandate the blending of biofuels with fossil fuel supplies. The paper raises the possibility that some firms might choose not to respect such mandates, and cites the UK's experience, where a buyout of the obligation is possible. A simple economic framework is then used to explore some implications of mandate buyouts, including situations when buyouts and road-fuel-tax rebates are applied together. Finally, it discusses the design of buyout-mandate schemes that could release raw materials from biofuel production, following a future world food price shock.
This paper presents information relevant to rule-making for geopressuredgeothermal development on state-owned lands. The analysis is focused on those potential social and economic effects of resource development, if any, which may require special attention during the leasing and permitting process. For the most part, many of the expected socioeconomic impacts are not unique to geothermal development, but are already being felt by residents of the fairways because of ongoing developmental activities. The social and economic impacts likely to result from resource development depend upon characteristics specific to the site and surrounding social and economic systems. Specific impacts and their probability, magnitude,...
Many governments mandate the blending of biofuels with fossil fuel supplies. The paper raises the possibility that some firms might choose not to respect such mandates, and cites the UK's experience, where a buyout of the obligation is possible. A simple economic framework is then used to explore some implications of mandate buyouts, including situations when buyouts and road-fuel-tax rebates are applied together. Finally, it discusses the design of buyout-mandate schemes that could release raw materials from biofuel production, following a future world food price shock.