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The article discusses a report published by the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) that examined the technical feasibility of using wind energy for electricity generation. The report assessed the costs, impacts and challenges associated with the production of 20% wind energy by 2030. Results have shown that there is a need for an enhanced transmission infrastructure and an increase in turbine installations to achieve 20% wind energy.
Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in Alberta are classified as endangered and apparently have declined. Disturbance from petroleum exploration has been implicated as a possible cause, so we constructed a simple model to estimate the energy costs of multiple encounters with disturbance (i.e., loud noise). Our objective was to estimate if woodland caribou in northeastern Alberta have been exposed to enough disturbance from 1988 to 1993 to cause winter mass loss to exceed either (i) 15% autumn mass or (ii) 20% autumn mass. A single disturbance event costs caribou 3.46-5.81 MJ. Caribou would have to encounter (i) 20-34 (mean = 27) disturbance events to lose >15% mass over winter and (ii) 41-137 (mean = 89)...
ABSTRACT: To help meet national energy demands, interest has been focused on the coal, oil shale, and uranium deposits of the Upper Colorado River Basin. Several energy output projections for the basin have been presented based upon water availability. Inherent in all these analyses are estimates as to the rate of water use in each energy development. New energy technologies are characterized by parameters extrapolated from small scale energy facilities. The data provide projected costs, conversion efficiencies, and material inputs and outputs. Alternative techniques for process cooling and solids handling provide variable rates of water use which affect other conversion parameters. Results from a mathematical model...
This article presents an application of a risk assessment approach in characterising the risks associated with safety violations in underground bituminous mines in Pennsylvania using the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) citation database. The MSHA database on citations provides an opportunity to assess risks in mines through scrutiny of violations of mandatory safety standards. In this study, quantitative risk assessment is performed, which allows determination of the frequency of occurrence of safety violations (through associated citations) as well as the consequences of them in terms of penalty assessments. Focus is on establishing risk matrices on citation experiences of mines, which can give early...
Increasing the proportion of power derived from renewable energy sources is becoming an increasingly important part of many countries's strategies to achieve reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. However, renewable energy investments can often have external costs and benefits, which need to be taken into account if socially optimal investments are to be made. This paper attempts to estimate the magnitude of these external costs and benefits for the case of renewable technologies in Scotland, a country which has set particularly ambitious targets for expanding renewable energy. The external effects we consider are those on landscape quality, wildlife and air quality. We also consider the welfare implications of...
This paper approximates the emissions rebound effects' associated with substituting expensive and GHG emitting natural gas (LNG) power plants, with apparently cheaper and lower emitting nuclear plant. It then evaluates the effect this has on economy wide electricity use as well as net GHG emissions changes. The analysis is undertaken by combining aspects of an input-output model with an optimizing energy systems model. The scope of the case study is limited to the effects of the electricity sector (and its emissions) on the Korean economy from 2005 to 2030. Its primary basis (in terms of data and assumptions) is the recent national Basic Plan for Long-Term Electricity Supply and Demand (KPX, 2006).(2) The cases...
Electric and magnetic fields were measured during the summer of 1998 in south-central Ontario within the business district of 60 communities, ranging in size from 1000 to 2.3 million people. The mean magnetic flux density for the 60 communities was 5.8 mG. Communities with larger populations generally had higher magnetic flux densities than those with smaller populations.Communities with populations above 100 000, between 50 000 and 100 000, between 10 000 and 50 000, and less than 10 000 had mean magnetic flux densities of 14, 7, 4 and 2.4 mG, respectively. The city of Kingston, population 123 000, had the highest mean magnetic flux density (47 mG) while Burks Falls, population 1000, had the lowest (0.8 mG).Mor...
This paper empirically examines the dynamic causal relationships between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, economic growth, trade openness and urbanization for the panel of newly industrialized countries (NIC) using the time series data for the period 1971–2007. Using four different panel unit root tests it is found that all panel variables are integrated of order 1. From the Johansen Fisher panel cointegration test it is found that there is a cointegration vector among the variables. The Granger causality test results support that there is no evidence of long-run causal relationship, but there is unidirectional short-run causal relationship from economic growth and trade openness to carbon dioxide emissions,...
In this paper we review threshold behaviour in environmental systems, which are often associated with the onset of floods, contamination and erosion events, and other degenerative processes. Key objectives of this review are to a) suggest indicators for detecting threshold behavior, b) discuss their implications for predictability, c) distinguish different forms of threshold behavior and their underlying controls, and d) hypothesise on possible reasons for why threshold behaviour might occur. Threshold behaviour involves a fast qualitative change of either a single process or the response of a system. For elementary phenomena this switch occurs when boundary conditions (e.g., energy inputs) or system states as expressed...
More than 20 countries generate electricity from geothermal resources and about 60 countries make direct use of geothermal energy. A ten-fold increase in geothermal energy use is foreseeable at the current technology level. Geothermal Energy: An Alternative Resource for the 21st Century provides a readable and coherent account of all facets of geothermal energy development and summarizes the present day knowledge on geothermal resources, their exploration and exploitation. Accounts of geothermal resource models, various exploration techniques, drilling and production technology are discussed within 9 chapters, as well as important concepts and current technological developments.
Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in Alberta are classified as endangered and apparently have declined. Disturbance from petroleum exploration has been implicated as a possible cause, so we constructed a simple model to estimate the energy costs of multiple encounters with disturbance (i.e., loud noise). Our objective was to estimate if woodland caribou in northeastern Alberta have been exposed to enough disturbance from 1988 to 1993 to cause winter mass loss to exceed either (i) 15% autumn mass or (ii) 20% autumn mass. A single disturbance event costs caribou 3.46-5.81 MJ. Caribou would have to encounter (i) 20-34 (mean = 27) disturbance events to lose >15% mass over winter and (ii) 41-137 (mean = 89)...
ABSTRACT: To help meet national energy demands, interest has been focused on the coal, oil shale, and uranium deposits of the Upper Colorado River Basin. Several energy output projections for the basin have been presented based upon water availability. Inherent in all these analyses are estimates as to the rate of water use in each energy development. New energy technologies are characterized by parameters extrapolated from small scale energy facilities. The data provide projected costs, conversion efficiencies, and material inputs and outputs. Alternative techniques for process cooling and solids handling provide variable rates of water use which affect other conversion parameters. Results from a mathematical model...
Increasing the proportion of power derived from renewable energy sources is becoming an increasingly important part of many countries's strategies to achieve reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. However, renewable energy investments can often have external costs and benefits, which need to be taken into account if socially optimal investments are to be made. This paper attempts to estimate the magnitude of these external costs and benefits for the case of renewable technologies in Scotland, a country which has set particularly ambitious targets for expanding renewable energy. The external effects we consider are those on landscape quality, wildlife and air quality. We also consider the welfare implications of...
During the last ten years environmental quality and energy have emerged as important national issues right along with the economy. The central proposition appears to be that environmental concerns are inversely related to concern about energy and the economy. The common assumptions about public perception of the trade-offs between environmental quality, economic growth, and energy production are shown to be invalid. In any event it is unlikely that public policy makers will find themselves strongly pulled by a highly polarized public.
More than 20 countries generate electricity from geothermal resources and about 60 countries make direct use of geothermal energy. A ten-fold increase in geothermal energy use is foreseeable at the current technology level. Geothermal Energy: An Alternative Resource for the 21st Century provides a readable and coherent account of all facets of geothermal energy development and summarizes the present day knowledge on geothermal resources, their exploration and exploitation. Accounts of geothermal resource models, various exploration techniques, drilling and production technology are discussed within 9 chapters, as well as important concepts and current technological developments.
The article discusses a report published by the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) that examined the technical feasibility of using wind energy for electricity generation. The report assessed the costs, impacts and challenges associated with the production of 20% wind energy by 2030. Results have shown that there is a need for an enhanced transmission infrastructure and an increase in turbine installations to achieve 20% wind energy.
ABSTRACT: To help meet national energy demands, interest has been focused on the coal, oil shale, and uranium deposits of the Upper Colorado River Basin. Several energy output projections for the basin have been presented based upon water availability. Inherent in all these analyses are estimates as to the rate of water use in each energy development. New energy technologies are characterized by parameters extrapolated from small scale energy facilities. The data provide projected costs, conversion efficiencies, and material inputs and outputs. Alternative techniques for process cooling and solids handling provide variable rates of water use which affect other conversion parameters. Results from a mathematical model...
This paper empirically examines the dynamic causal relationships between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, economic growth, trade openness and urbanization for the panel of newly industrialized countries (NIC) using the time series data for the period 1971–2007. Using four different panel unit root tests it is found that all panel variables are integrated of order 1. From the Johansen Fisher panel cointegration test it is found that there is a cointegration vector among the variables. The Granger causality test results support that there is no evidence of long-run causal relationship, but there is unidirectional short-run causal relationship from economic growth and trade openness to carbon dioxide emissions,...
We provide an overview of research related to environmental effects of disposal of coal combustion residues (CCR) in sites in the United States. Our focus is on aspects of CCR that have the potential to negatively influence aquatic organisms and the health of aquatic ecosystems. We identify major issues of concern, as well as areas in need of further investigation. Intentional or accidental release of CCR into aquatic systems has generally been associated with deleterious environmental effects. A large number of metals and trace elements are present in CCR, some of which are rapidly accumulated to high concentrations by aquatic organisms. Moreover, a variety of biological responses have been observed in organisms...
Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in Alberta are classified as endangered and apparently have declined. Disturbance from petroleum exploration has been implicated as a possible cause, so we constructed a simple model to estimate the energy costs of multiple encounters with disturbance (i.e., loud noise). Our objective was to estimate if woodland caribou in northeastern Alberta have been exposed to enough disturbance from 1988 to 1993 to cause winter mass loss to exceed either (i) 15% autumn mass or (ii) 20% autumn mass. A single disturbance event costs caribou 3.46-5.81 MJ. Caribou would have to encounter (i) 20-34 (mean = 27) disturbance events to lose >15% mass over winter and (ii) 41-137 (mean = 89)...