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Climate and land-use change are major components of global environmental change with feedbacks between these components. The consequences of these interactions show that land use may exacerbate or alleviate climate change effects. Based on these findings it is important to use land-use scenarios that are consistent with the specific assumptions underlying climate-change scenarios. The Integrated Climate and Land-Use Scenarios (ICLUS) project developed land-use outputs that are based on a downscaled version of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) social, economic, and demographic storylines. ICLUS outputs are derived from a pair of models. A demographic...
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NLCD 1992, NLCD 2001, and NLCD 2006 are National Land Cover Database classification schemes based primarily on Landsat data along with ancillary data sources, such as topography, census and agricultural statistics, soil characteristics, wetlands, and other land cover maps. NLCD 1992 is a 21-class land cover classification scheme that has been applied consistently across the conterminous U.S. at a spatial resolution of 30 meters. NLCD 2001 is a 16-class land cover classification scheme that also has been applied to the conterminous U.S. at a spatial resolution of 30 meters, and includes Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. NLCD 2006 quantifies land cover change for the conterminous U.S. between the years 2001 to 2006....
Conclusions:Within a watershed, about 10% of development is not subject to drainage regulations resulting in cumulative effects from urbanization that significantly degrade watersheds. Instead of regulatory thresholds (e.g. 10% EIA), process controls are required to mitigate the impacts of urbanization on aquatic systems. Without these controls, strict development limits are the only way to limit watershed degradation.Thresholds/Learnings:The study cautions against the use of discrete “thresholds” to predict specific physical and biological effects, but does suggest that thresholds are appropriate indicators for when the perception and tolerance of watershed impacts triggers a regulatory response.
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Percent Impervious Cover These layers give more information about the impervious cover indicator for the South Atlantic LCC. These layers show the change in percent impervious cover over time and the projected change in the future. To read more about the indicators and how they are being used, please visit the indicator page. Reason for selection: Impervious cover is easy to monitor and model, widely used and understood by diverse partners, and is strongly linked to water quality, estuary condition, eutrophication, and freshwater inflow Target: Maintain percent of catchments that have 10% or less impervious cover Input Data: NHDPlus smoothed catchments (Version 01_01) Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version...
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The SARP Flow Alteration Assessment provides a regional characterization of the distribution and risk of flow regime impairment of streams and rivers by anthropogenic sources at the NHD+ segment scale. This map illustrates the risk of flow alteration (RFA) from runoff from impervious surfaces in local catchments for the 14-state SARP region.  The amount of impervious surface is based on 2006 National Land Use/Land Cover dataset.  The risk is based on the percentage of the catchment land surface covered by impervious surfaces (100 x impervious surface area / watershed surface area: Risk of flow alteration categories:         ZERO -     0% land covered by impervious surface         LOW -Â...
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Conclusions: The amount of upstream impervious area affects downstream fish habitat quality, channel stability, and water quality. The use of riparian buffers can reduce the magnitude of urban impacts, however, they cannot fully mitigate the impacts of upstream development in the watershed. Threshold percentages of impervious areas , as well as the percentage of forest cover in a watershed appear to be the most effective indicators of watershed health. Thresholds/Learnings: Impervious areas should be kept at or below 10% of a watershed, and forest cover should be maintained at a minimum of 65% in order to effectively mitigate the impacts of urbanization and development on watersheds. Synopsis: This paper articulates...
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Percent Impervious Cover This layer is one of the South Atlantic LCC indicators in the freshwater aquatic focal environment. To read more about the indicators and how they are being used, please visit the indicator page. Reason for selection Impervious cover is easy to monitor and model, widely used and understood by diverse partners, and is strongly linked to water quality, estuary condition, eutrophication, and freshwater inflow Target Maintain percent of catchments that have 10% or less impervious cover Input Data NHDPlus smoothed catchments (Version 01_01) NLCD 2011 Impervious 06/03/2014 Mapping Steps Mean percent impervious (from 2011 NLCD) for each NHDPlus in the SALCC + ACF basin was calculated...
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NLCD 2011 is the most up-to-date iteration of the National Land Cover Database, the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution land cover database for the Nation. This dataset represents percent developed imperviousness clipped to the Northeast. The National Land Cover Database products are created through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of federal agencies (www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National...
Conclusions: Imperviousness can be used as a general indicator of potential development impacts on water resources when making land use decisions. Thresholds/Learnings: Threshold values of imperviousness on overall stream health are generalized from literature review: protected (less than 10%), impacted (10% - 30%), and degraded (more than 30%). However, as indicated in other studies, these thresholds are of questionable value.
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This file represents a reclassified raster such that 0%=1, 0.01-9.5%=2, 9.5-19%=3, 19-29%=4, 29-38%=5, 38-48%=6, 48-58%=7. Original: ICLUS v1.3 Estimated Percent Impervious Suface for the Conterminous USA. Pixel values are projected estimates of percent imperviousness. These forecasts were statistically modeled based on the relationship between housing density and imperviousness using data from the U.S. Census Bureau and the 2001 National Land Cover Database. Climate and land-use change are major components of global environmental change with feedbacks between these components. The consequences of these interactions show that land use may exacerbate or alleviate climate change effects. Based on these findings it...
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This data layer was created by subtracting is2050rclss (representing projections for year 2050 under a2) from is2010reclss (representing projections for year 2010) to create a difference in percent impervious surface layer. Negative values represent an increase in percentage by 1, 2, or 3 levels, 0 indicates no change, and positive values represent a decrease in impervious layers by 1 or 2 levels. Levels refer to the values, 1-7, of is2050rclss and is2010reclss created by reclassifying the source rasters such that 0%=1, 0.01-9.5%=2, 9.5-19%=3, 19-29%=4, 29-38%=5, 38-48%=6, 48-58%=7. Description from original file: ICLUS v1.3 Estimated Percent Impervious Suface for the Conterminous USA. Pixel values are projected...
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The SARP Flow Alteration Assessment provides a regional characterization of the distribution and risk of flow regime impairment of streams and rivers by anthropogenic sources at the NHD+ segment scale. This map illustrates the cumulative risk of flow alteration (RFA) due to runoff from impervious surfaces for the 14-state SARP region. Â The amount of impervious surface is based on 2006 National Land Use/Land Cover dataset. Â The risk is based on the percentage of the catchment land surface covered by impervious surfaces (100 x impervious surface area / watershed surface area): Risk of flow alteration categories: Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â ZERO -Â Â Â Â Â 0% land covered by impervious...
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Permeable Surface This layer is an older version of one of the South Atlantic LCC indicators in the freshwater aquatic ecosystem. It is an index of impervious surface within each watershed. This indicator was updated in Blueprint 2.1 to make it continuous, rather than binned into categories. This update also used an improved resampling method. Impervious cover is easy to monitor and model, and is widely used and understood by diverse partners. It is also strongly linked to water quality, estuary condition, eutrophication, and freshwater inflow. The 10% impervious threshold is a well-documented signal of major changes to an aquatic ecosystem that the literature continues to support (Schueler et al. 2009). The 5%...


    map background search result map search result map Urbanization of aquatic systems: degradation thresholds, stormwater detection, and the limits of mitigation. Cumulative Risk of Flow Alteration from Impervious Surfaces in the SARP Region Risk of Flow Alteration from Impervious Surface in Local Catchments of the SARP Region USGS National Land Cover Database (2006, 2001, 1992) Draft Indicator: 2011 Impervious Surface <= 10 percent Impervious Surface Trend OUTDATED Indicator V 2.0: Freshwater Aquatic - Permeable Surface NLCD 2011 Percent Developed Imperviousness (2011 Edition) Impervious Surface: Projected 2050 Impervious Surface: Projected 2010 Impervious Surface: Projected Difference 2010 To 2050 Urbanization of aquatic systems: degradation thresholds, stormwater detection, and the limits of mitigation. Impervious Surface: Projected 2010 Impervious Surface: Projected Difference 2010 To 2050 Impervious Surface: Projected 2050 Impervious Surface Trend Draft Indicator: 2011 Impervious Surface <= 10 percent OUTDATED Indicator V 2.0: Freshwater Aquatic - Permeable Surface NLCD 2011 Percent Developed Imperviousness (2011 Edition) Cumulative Risk of Flow Alteration from Impervious Surfaces in the SARP Region Risk of Flow Alteration from Impervious Surface in Local Catchments of the SARP Region USGS National Land Cover Database (2006, 2001, 1992)