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For remediation purposes, initially, the screening and selection of potent biosorbent, among three agro-industrial wastes (i.e., wheat bran, maize bran, and rice bran) was done. Wheat bran was found to show maximum uptake in the case of both Se(IV) and Se(...
The paper traces the manner in which an obligation came to be imposed on select industries, requiring them to take account of amenity, wildlife and outdoor-recreational interests in the course of preparing and carrying out developmental schemes. Under pressure from the relevant voluntary bodies, the statutory obligations, first imposed on hydro-electric power development, were generalized to cover 'whole' industries, and then, under the Countryside Acts of 1967-68, were extended to all State utilities. The recent privatization of those industries has provided a further pretext for extending and strengthening the 'amenity' clause. The approach has provided important insights into how industry itself might become...
There are unconventional fuels that may serve as near term major replacements for conventional mineral oil and natural gas. These include fuels from oil shale and bitumen, liquid fuels from coal, methane from methane hydrates, biofuels and the secondary fuel hydrogen. Here, these fuels will be reviewed as to their presumable stocks and life cycle wastes, emissions and inputs of natural resources. The unconventional fuels are usually characterized by a relatively poor source-to-burner energy efficiency when compared with current conventional mineral oil and gas. Apart from some varieties of hydrogen and biofuel, their life cycles are characterized by relatively large water inputs, emissions, and wastes. The unconventional...
We assessed options for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation in the US Great Lakes States, a region heavily dependent on coal-fired power plants. A proposed 600 MW power plant in northern Lower Michigan, USA provided context for our evaluation. Options to offset fossil CO2 emissions by 20% included biomass fuel substitution from (1) forest residuals, (2) short-rotation woody crops, or (3) switchgrass; (4) biologic sequestration in forest plantations; and (5) geologic sequestration using CO2 capture. Review of timber product output data, land cover data, and expected energy crop productivity on idle agriculture land within 120 km of the plant revealed that biomass from forestry residuals...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Community, Energy, Hydrogen
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The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled a geodatabase containing mineral-related geospatial data for 19 countries of interest in the Indo-Pacific region (area of study): Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Burma, Fiji, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nauru, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Korea (Republic of Korea), Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Timor-Leste, and Vietnam. The data can be used in analyses of the extractive fuel and nonfuel mineral industries integral for the successful operation of the mineral industries within the area of study. This geodatabase reflects the USGS ongoing commitment to its mission of understanding the nature and distribution of global mineral commodity...
Types: Map Service, OGC WFS Layer, OGC WMS Layer, OGC WMS Service; Tags: Asia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Burma, All tags...
This paper reviews the current EU policy framework in view of its impact on hydrogen and fuel cell development. It screens EU energy policies, EU regulatory policies and EU spending policies. Key questions addressed are as follows: to what extent is the current policy framework conducive to hydrogen and fuel cell development? What barriers and inconsistencies can be identified? How can policies potentially promote hydrogen and fuel cells in Europe, taking into account the complex evolution of such a potentially disruptive technology? How should the EU policy framework be reformed in view of a strengthened and more coherent approach towards full deployment, taking into account recent technology-support activities?...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Energy policy, Hydrogen, Innovation
This paper reviews the current EU policy framework in view of its impact on hydrogen and fuel cell development. It screens EU energy policies, EU regulatory policies and EU spending policies. Key questions addressed are as follows: to what extent is the current policy framework conducive to hydrogen and fuel cell development? What barriers and inconsistencies can be identified? How can policies potentially promote hydrogen and fuel cells in Europe, taking into account the complex evolution of such a potentially disruptive technology? How should the EU policy framework be reformed in view of a strengthened and more coherent approach towards full deployment, taking into account recent technology-support activities?...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Energy policy, Hydrogen, Innovation
The cleanliness of hydrogen and the efficiency of fuel cells taken together offer an appealing alternative to fossil fuels. Implementing hydrogen-powered fuel cells on a significant scale, however, requires major advances in hydrogen production, storage, and use. Splitting water renewably offers the most plentiful and climate-friendly source of hydrogen and can be achieved through electrolytic, photochemical, or biological means. Whereas presently available hydride compounds cannot easily satisfy the competing requirements for on-board storage of hydrogen for transportation, nanoscience offers promising new approaches to this challenge. Fuel cells offer potentially efficient production of electricity for transportation...
Reactive solute transport models are useful tools for analyzing complex geochemical behavior resulting from biodegradation of organic compounds by multiple terminal electron acceptors (TEAPs). The usual approach of simulating the reactions of multiple TEAPs by an irreversible Monod rate law was compared with simulations that assumed a partial local equilibrium or kinetically controlled reactions subject to the requirement that the Gibbs free energy of reaction (ΔG) was either less than zero or less than a threshold value. Simulations were performed using a single organic substrate and O2, FeOOH, SO4−2 and CO2 as the terminal electron acceptors. It was assumed that the organic substrate was slowly and completely...
There are unconventional fuels that may serve as near term major replacements for conventional mineral oil and natural gas. These include fuels from oil shale and bitumen, liquid fuels from coal, methane from methane hydrates, biofuels and the secondary fuel hydrogen. Here, these fuels will be reviewed as to their presumable stocks and life cycle wastes, emissions and inputs of natural resources. The unconventional fuels are usually characterized by a relatively poor source-to-burner energy efficiency when compared with current conventional mineral oil and gas. Apart from some varieties of hydrogen and biofuel, their life cycles are characterized by relatively large water inputs, emissions, and wastes. The unconventional...
The paper discusses the nature of hydroelectric energy and how it is integrated into modern power systems. The role of tidal power and pumped storage schemes are mentioned briefly. The principal constraints to the wider development of hydropower are concerned with their effect on the environment, their high initial cost, and uncertainty over the future price of oil. These constraints are discussed, together with brief mention of how the challenge each represents is being countered. Representative recent technical advances, particularly in the civil engineering field, are described. The paper concludes with a brief account of some of the institutional problems encountered in promoting hydroelectric projects, particularly...
We addressed a United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) commitment to undertake hydrogen isotopic analyses of feathers (“Stable hydrogen isotope ratios from feathers”) collected from falconer-harvested passage peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) by: (1) developing a map using feathers collected from falcons of known origin, (2) linking falconer-harvested passage peregrines to natal origin, and (3) estimating the degree to which the predicted make-up of the harvest in the USFWS Final Environmental Assessment (EA) was correct (i.e., greater than 64 percent of peregrines originated from high latitudes). The USFWS coordinated the collection of 125 feathers in the United States from known-origin nestlings and...
The cleanliness of hydrogen and the efficiency of fuel cells taken together offer an appealing alternative to fossil fuels. Implementing hydrogen-powered fuel cells on a significant scale, however, requires major advances in hydrogen production, storage, and use. Splitting water renewably offers the most plentiful and climate-friendly source of hydrogen and can be achieved through electrolytic, photochemical, or biological means. Whereas presently available hydride compounds cannot easily satisfy the competing requirements for on-board storage of hydrogen for transportation, nanoscience offers promising new approaches to this challenge. Fuel cells offer potentially efficient production of electricity for transportation...
The contributions to sustainability of hydrogen and fuel cell systems are described, with the intention of providing a good understanding of the role hydrogen is expected to play in sustainable energy systems. It is demonstrated how the benefits and sustainability attributes of hydrogen systems can be observed using thermodynamics, life cycle assessment and other methods, and that hydrogen fuel cell systems can play a significant role, particularly by facilitating the use of renewable energy and by increasing efficiency. The usefulness of exergy methods for enhancing the efficiency and sustainability of hydrogen energy systems is also described. The importance of hydrogen energy and fuel cell systems in mitigating...
In this paper, we attempt to measure the environmental benefits of hydrogen deployment in the transportation sector. We compare the hydrogen pathways to the conventional transportation fuel cycles in terms of external costs, estimated using the results of the most accurate methodologies available in this field. The central values of performed analysis bring us ambiguous results. The external cost of the best conventional solution ("oil to diesel hybrid internal-combustion engine") in some cases is just higher and in others just lower than that of the best fossil fuel to hydrogen solution ("natural gas to hydrogen fuel cell"). Nevertheless, by accounting for the uncertainty about external costs, we are able to remove...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Environment, External costs, Hydrogen
In this paper, we attempt to measure the environmental benefits of hydrogen deployment in the transportation sector. We compare the hydrogen pathways to the conventional transportation fuel cycles in terms of external costs, estimated using the results of the most accurate methodologies available in this field. The central values of performed analysis bring us ambiguous results. The external cost of the best conventional solution ("oil to diesel hybrid internal-combustion engine") in some cases is just higher and in others just lower than that of the best fossil fuel to hydrogen solution ("natural gas to hydrogen fuel cell"). Nevertheless, by accounting for the uncertainty about external costs, we are able to remove...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Environment, External costs, Hydrogen
The paper discusses the nature of hydroelectric energy and how it is integrated into modern power systems. The role of tidal power and pumped storage schemes are mentioned briefly. The principal constraints to the wider development of hydropower are concerned with their effect on the environment, their high initial cost, and uncertainty over the future price of oil. These constraints are discussed, together with brief mention of how the challenge each represents is being countered. Representative recent technical advances, particularly in the civil engineering field, are described. The paper concludes with a brief account of some of the institutional problems encountered in promoting hydroelectric projects, particularly...
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The Alaska Geochemical Database Version 4.0 (AGDB4) contains geochemical data compilations in which each geologic material sample has one best value determination for each analyzed species, greatly improving efficiency of use. The relational database includes historical geochemical data archived in the USGS National Geochemical Database (NGDB), the Atomic Energy Commission National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance databases, and the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) Geochemistry database. Data from the U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Bureau of Land Management are included as well. The data tables describe historical and new quantitative...
Tags: AGDB, AMRAP, Alaska Geochemical Database, Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program, Alaska Range, All tags...
[Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas, and coal), which meet most of the world’s energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains, and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the Hydrogen Energy System. Hydrogen is a very efficient and dean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, little or no acid rain ingredients, and pollution. Hydrogen,...


map background search result map search result map Alaska Geochemical Database Version 4.0 (AGDB4) including best value data compilations for rock, sediment, soil, mineral, and concentrate sample media Compilation of Geospatial Data (GIS) for the Mineral Industries of Select Countries in the Indo-Pacific Alaska Geochemical Database Version 4.0 (AGDB4) including best value data compilations for rock, sediment, soil, mineral, and concentrate sample media Compilation of Geospatial Data (GIS) for the Mineral Industries of Select Countries in the Indo-Pacific