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The technology to recover natural gas depends on undisclosed types and amounts of toxic chemicals. A list of 944 products containing 632 chemicals used during natural gas operations was compiled. Literature searches were conducted to determine potential health effects of the 353 chemicals identified by Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers. More than 75% of the chemicals could affect the skin, eyes, and other sensory organs, and the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. Approximately 40-50% could affect the brain/nervous system, immune and cardiovascular systems, and the kidneys; 37% could affect the endocrine system; and 25% could cause cancer and mutations. These results indicate that many chemicals used...
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Shale gas is a key source of onshore domestic energy for the United States and production of this resource is increasing rapidly. Development and extraction of shale gas requires hydraulic fracturing, which entails horizontal drilling, perforation of steel casing and cement grout using explosive charges, and expansion of fractures using fluids under high pressure. Concern over potential environmental effects of shale gas development is growing and based on a recent review there is very little information in the scientific literature on potential environmental effects of hydraulic fracturing. We propose to conduct the first broad scale, data-based assessment of the potential effects of hydraulic fracturing on water...
Hydrates in nature have been known for a long time. In the last couple of decades the possibility of commercial utilization of natural hydrates has arisen as an alternative energy source. This paper asks 21 questions that, in the author’s opinion, need to be addressed and answered correctly before one can be confident one understands the scope of the problem one is facing in attempting to address the role of natural hydrates, both commercially and geologically.
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This child page contains FracFocus Fluid Data regarding the volume of water used during the hydrualic fracturing of oil wells for the Permian Basin, New Mexico and Texas, 2009-2019, for use as input data for the model associated with the Scientific Investigations Report "Estimates of Water Use Associated with Continuous Oil and Gas Development in the Permian Basin, Texas and New Mexico, 2010–2019" (Valder and others, 2021). All data points that met the filtering criteria as described in the Data Processing <procdesc> steps were retained in the data release. Further filtering of data points to remove unrealistic values was done prior to modeling. The model was used to estimate water use associated with continuous...
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The organic composition of produced waters (flowback and formation waters) from the Bakken Formation and the Three Forks Formation in the Williston Basin, North Dakota were examined in this study in order to aid in the remediation of surface contamination due to spills during transport and help develop treatment methods for recycling. Twelve produced water samples were collected from wells in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations at the well head and analyzed for non-purgable dissolved organic carbon (NPDOC), acetate, and extractable hydrocarbons. NPDOC and acetate concentrations from sampled wells from ranged from 33-190 milligrams per liter (mg/L) and 16-40 mg/L, respectively. Concentrations of individual extractable...
The technology to recover natural gas depends on undisclosed types and amounts of toxic chemicals. A list of 944 products containing 632 chemicals used during natural gas operations was compiled. Literature searches were conducted to determine potential health effects of the 353 chemicals identified by Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers. More than 75% of the chemicals could affect the skin, eyes, and other sensory organs, and the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. Approximately 40-50% could affect the brain/nervous system, immune and cardiovascular systems, and the kidneys; 37% could affect the endocrine system; and 25% could cause cancer and mutations. These results indicate that many chemicals used...
The technology to recover natural gas depends on undisclosed types and amounts of toxic chemicals. A list of 944 products containing 632 chemicals used during natural gas operations was compiled. Literature searches were conducted to determine potential health effects of the 353 chemicals identified by Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers. More than 75% of the chemicals could affect the skin, eyes, and other sensory organs, and the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. Approximately 40-50% could affect the brain/nervous system, immune and cardiovascular systems, and the kidneys; 37% could affect the endocrine system; and 25% could cause cancer and mutations. These results indicate that many chemicals used...
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The significant rise in seismicity rates in Oklahoma and Kansas (OK–KS) in the last decade has led to an increased interest in studying induced earthquakes. Although additional instruments have been deployed in the region, there are still relatively few recordings at the distances (<20 km) and magnitudes (M4+) most relevant to earthquake hazard. In contrast, the USGS Did You Feel It? (DYFI) system has collected more than 200,000 observations during this period with 22,000+ observations at distances less than 20 km. This dataset has already been used to study the unique characteristics of induced earthquakes, to evaluate the extent of felt area, shaking, and damage, to compare intensity and ground motion metrics,...
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Data supporting "Common hydraulic fracturing fluid additives alter the structure and function of anaerobic microbial communities", describing iron reduction experiments, microbial community profiling, and statistical testing of data.
In petroleum industry, the difference between pore pressure (Pp) and minimum horizontal stress Sh (termed the seal or retention capacity) is of major consideration because it is often assumed to represent how close a system is to hydraulic failure and thus the maximum hydrocarbon column height that can be maintained. While Sh and Pp are often considered to be independent parameters, several studies in the last decade have demonstrated that Sh and Pp are in fact coupled. However, the nature of this coupling relationship remains poorly understood. In this paper, we explore the influences of the spatial pore pressure distribution on Sh/Pp coupling and then on failure pressure predictions and trap integrity evaluation....
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This data release is comprised of a data set that contains specific conductance and chloride concentration data in HUC-8 watersheds that intersect with areas with unconventional oil and gas plays, and a data set that contains atmospheric nitrogen deposition rates and herbaceous plant species richness values across sample sites in the USA. Associated publication: Koenker, R., Chernozhukov, V., Xuming. and Peng, L., 2017, Handbook of quantile regression: Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press.
This article was submitted as a runner up and introduction to JIES 7.3, a special issue on the policy, science and dilemmas of nuclear energy in the 21st century. It provides an overview of some of the key challenges surrounding the so-called ‘nuclear renaissance’. It provides a broad context for the more specific concerns with the social and political aspects of radioactive waste which will be considered in the next issue. What are the likely consequences of a global nuclear power renaissance? This article answers that question by exploring six categories of costs and benefits associated with modern nuclear power plants: capital and production costs, safety and reliability, fuel costs, land degradation, water use,...
The significant rise in seismicity rates in Oklahoma and Kansas (OK–KS) in the last decade has led to an increased interest in studying induced earthquakes. Although additional instruments have been deployed in the region, there are still relatively few recordings at the distances (<20 km) and magnitudes (M4+) most relevant to earthquake hazard. In contrast, the USGS Did You Feel It? (DYFI) system has collected more than 200,000 observations during this period with 22,000+ observations at distances less than 20 km. This dataset has already been used to study the unique characteristics of induced earthquakes, to evaluate the extent of felt area, shaking, and damage, to compare intensity and ground motion metrics,...
The Marcellus tight gas shale represents a significant resource within the northeastern United States. It is both a large reserve, with an estimated 30 to 300 TCF of recoverable gas, and is close to some of the largest prospective markets in the country. However, production is fraught with technological obstacles, the most significant of which include prospecting, access by drilling, stimulation, and recovery. Prospecting is difficult because viability of the reservoir relies both on the original gas in place and in the ability to access that gas through pre-existing fractures that may be developed through stimulation. Drilling is a challenge since drilling costs typically comprise 50% of the cost of the wells and...
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This dataset represents sedimentary basins associated with the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) shale plays as of May 6, 2011. A play is a set of known or postulated oil and gas accumulations sharing similar geologic, geographic, and temporal properties, such as source rock, migration pathway, timing, trapping mechanism, and hydrocarbon type. A play is often used to refer to a natural gas accumulation; in this case a natural gas shale play. Shale gas is produced from wells that are open to shale formations. Shale is a fine-grained, sedimentary rock composed of mud from flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other materials. Land containing shale are susceptible to hyrdaulic...
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The input form provides a record of the complete input values required for the quantitative assessment of water and proppant associated with oil and gas production for the continuous oil and gas resource in a geologically defined Assessment Unit, and the same form template is used for all such assessments. Each USGS water and proppant assessment builds from a USGS petroleum assessment that provides the geologic foundation for the water and proppant assessment. Assessment units are defined in the course of conducting the petroleum assessment.


map background search result map search result map Shale Basins, Northeast Data for common hydraulic fracturing fluid additives alter the structure and function of anaerobic microbial communities Water quality, atmospheric nitrogen deposition and herbaceous plant species richness in the USA, 1970-2011 Input forms for 2016 water and proppant assessment of the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin, USA Organic Analysis of Oilfield Produced Water from the Williston Basin, North Dakota FracFocus Fluid Data for the Permian Basin, New Mexico and Texas, 2009-2019 Data for common hydraulic fracturing fluid additives alter the structure and function of anaerobic microbial communities Organic Analysis of Oilfield Produced Water from the Williston Basin, North Dakota FracFocus Fluid Data for the Permian Basin, New Mexico and Texas, 2009-2019 Input forms for 2016 water and proppant assessment of the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin, USA Shale Basins, Northeast Water quality, atmospheric nitrogen deposition and herbaceous plant species richness in the USA, 1970-2011