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Water having entered a stream channel from the surrounding catchment may continue to have connections with the catchment. In the stream's hyporheic zone, water “in the channel” exchanges with “groundwater” in the bed of the stream. Hyporheic exchange flows typically occur at scales small relative to the length and volumetric transport characteristics of the stream. Nevertheless, it is well documented that hyporheic exchange flows significantly influence nutrient dynamics. Additionally, there is evidence of hyporheic exchange flows similarly influencing the processes establishing the concentrations of major-ions and metals in stream-catchment systems. It is within the contexts of (i) solute transport and (ii) the...
Water has been over-allocated all over the world; natural rivers have been over-exploited and regulated to manage storage and distribute the water to thirsty cities and agricultural lands. The Colorado River is no exception to this trend. It is one of the most regulated rivers in the world; the once mighty Delta that formed from the river has become a few hectares of native trees surrounded by agriculture lands and houses. At the border between Mexico and the U.S., the last of the Colorado's water is diverted, so that the last 160 kilometers of natural stream channel no longer carry regular flows and the river doesn't reach the sea. Because of this, the first binational environmental water allocation between Mexico...