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Improving energy efficiency is the most effective and least expensive way to reduce carbon dioxide (C02) emissions in most industrialized nations - including the UK. A report from the UKAEA's own Energy Technology Support Unit concludes that energy efficiency can displace nearly four times more C02 than nuclear power can - more quickly and more cost-effectively. Each pound invested in efficient lighting can displace four to five times as much C02 as a pound invested in new nuclear power. Meanwhile, given recent dramatic progress in renewable energy technologies, the most promising long-term COz-abatement strategy may be a synergistic combination of energy efficiency and renewable energy.
Denitrification, the reduction of the nitrogen (N) oxides, nitrate (NO3−) and nitrite (NO2−), to the gases nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O), and dinitrogen (N2), is important to primary production, water quality, and the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere at ecosystem, landscape, regional, and global scales. Unfortunately, this process is very difficult to measure, and existing methods are problematic for different reasons in different places at different times. In this paper, we review the major approaches that have been taken to measure denitrification in terrestrial and aquatic environments and discuss the strengths, weaknesses, and future prospects for the different methods. Methodological approaches...
This study uses an integrative approach to study the water-quality impacts of future global climate and land-use changes. In this study, changing land-use types was used as a mitigation strategy to reduce the adverse impacts of global climate change on water resources. The climate scenarios were based on projections made by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the United Kingdom Hadley Centre's climate model (HadCM2). The Thornthwaite water-balance model was coupled with a land-use model (L-THIA) to investigate the hydrologic effects of future climate and land-use changes in the Ohio River Basin. The land-use model is based on the Soil Conservation Service's curve-number method. It uses the curve...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality, Climatic changes, Data Visualization & Tools, Environment management, Freshwater, All tags...
Improving energy efficiency is the most effective and least expensive way to reduce carbon dioxide (C02) emissions in most industrialized nations - including the UK. A report from the UKAEA's own Energy Technology Support Unit concludes that energy efficiency can displace nearly four times more C02 than nuclear power can - more quickly and more cost-effectively. Each pound invested in efficient lighting can displace four to five times as much C02 as a pound invested in new nuclear power. Meanwhile, given recent dramatic progress in renewable energy technologies, the most promising long-term COz-abatement strategy may be a synergistic combination of energy efficiency and renewable energy.
In this paper we introduce a comprehensive model for policy analysis of the greenhouse effect (PAGE). We apply the PAGE model to assess the merits of policies to prevent global warming (by controlling the emissions of greenhouse gases), and policies to adapt to any global warming that occurs. The results confirm that it is difficult to overcome the problem of global warming by taking preventive action alone. The argument for introducing an aggressive adaptive policy is very strong. We calculate the valuation that would have to be placed upon non-economic environmental and social impacts, for a combined strategy of preventive and adaptive policies to be considered a worthwhile option, both for individual regions...
The measurement of global climate change poses grave difficulties for scientific enquiry and policy studies. Attention has so far focused on global warming and the concentration of greenhouse gases and a detailed examination has been made of the critical elements: carbon dioxide (C02), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N20) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Priority has now shifted to the refining of general circulation models (GCMs) and to the hypothesis testing that they allow. A new challenge must be met: to formulate measurements of the climate consequences of burning fossil fuels, and to identify the burdens that nations must shoulder to retard the process of global climate change. The conclusion is that policy recommendations...
The project Socio-economic aspects o f the greenhouse effect: Climate f u n d studies the impact of international capital transfers on the efficiency and efficacy of greenhouse gas emission reduction. The absolute costs of emission abatement is substantially lower in less developed countries. The associated reduction of the damage due to conventional air pollution is higher in the richer countries in both absolute and relative terms. The costs of climatic change are relatively higher (but absolute lower) in the developing countries. Prime impacts are on agriculture (in the developing world) and human health (highly valued in the developed world). Costs of emission reduction and climatic change are joined in a nine...
The public, policymakers, and industry have failed in general to fully understand the ramifications of the UN's unprecedented scientific advisory pro- \ cess on global warmmg, culminating in the 1990 report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. For their part, the world's climate scientists have failed - amid the many uncertainties in climate prediction - adequately to impress on policymakers' the worst-case analyses of global warming. In consequence, as a result of the perceived costs of emission-limitation policies, collective risk-analysis is erring on the side of potential adaptation rather than emission limitation. This paper argues that the current predictions of the IPCC - much less the worst-case...
Governmental policy options in response to increasing concern over an emerging greenhouse warming are reviewed. These will reflect differing levels of pofitical concem as understanding on the future size and impacts of the greenhouse effect evolves. High levels of concem will place emphasis on the option of limiting C02 emissions by restricting fossil fuel use. This option requires emphasis on energy efficiency and changes in energy supply, with increased use of natural gas, nuclear power or renewable energy sources. The progressive industrialization of the LDCs with the consequent growth in energy demand, may put additional pressure on developed countries to take action on this policy option.
Denitrification, the reduction of the nitrogen (N) oxides, nitrate (NO3−) and nitrite (NO2−), to the gases nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O), and dinitrogen (N2), is important to primary production, water quality, and the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere at ecosystem, landscape, regional, and global scales. Unfortunately, this process is very difficult to measure, and existing methods are problematic for different reasons in different places at different times. In this paper, we review the major approaches that have been taken to measure denitrification in terrestrial and aquatic environments and discuss the strengths, weaknesses, and future prospects for the different methods. Methodological approaches...
Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a heterogeneous material. Though regulated as un-speciated mass, it exerts most effects on vegetation and ecosystems by virtue of the mass loading of its chemical constituents. As this varies temporally and spatially, prediction of regional impacts remains difficult. Deposition of PM to vegetated surfaces depends on the size distribution of the particles and, to a lesser extent, on the chemistry. However, chemical loading of an ecosystem may be determined by the size distribution as different constituents dominate different size fractions. Coating with dust may cause abrasion and radiative heating, and may reduce the photosynthetically active photon flux reaching the photosynthetic...
The project Socio-economic aspects o f the greenhouse effect: Climate f u n d studies the impact of international capital transfers on the efficiency and efficacy of greenhouse gas emission reduction. The absolute costs of emission abatement is substantially lower in less developed countries. The associated reduction of the damage due to conventional air pollution is higher in the richer countries in both absolute and relative terms. The costs of climatic change are relatively higher (but absolute lower) in the developing countries. Prime impacts are on agriculture (in the developing world) and human health (highly valued in the developed world). Costs of emission reduction and climatic change are joined in a nine...
Renewable energy sources can play an important part in controlling and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. However, at present they make only a modest contribution to energy balances and receive a small proportion of research and development budgets. This paper examines the role which renewables could play in cutting C02 emissions and considers how the barriers to their development might be overcome. It assesses policies towards these technologies in two countries, the UK and Denmark, particularly in the light of increasing environmental concerns.