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Cardiac chamber enlargement and hypertrophy are normal physiologic responses to repetitive endurance exercise activity in human beings and domestic dogs. Whether similar changes occur in wild animals as a consequence of increased activity is unknown. We found that free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus, n=11), the archetypical endurance athlete, have electrocardiographic evidence of cardiac chamber enlargement and hypertrophy relative to sedentary captive gray wolves (n=20), as demonstrated by significant increases in QRS duration, QT interval, and QT interval corrected for heart rate, a tendency towards increased Q, R, and S wave voltages in all leads, and a significant decrease in heart rate. We conclude that exercise...
The Commission on Environmental Cooperation, in concert with a trinational group of experts, has identified North American species of common conservation concern (SCCC). These terrestrial and marine species comprise a group of important migratory, transboundary and endemic species selected from among the continent’s great wealth of wild flora and fauna, which require regional cooperation for their effective conservation.
A Leslie matrix model was developed for a small gray wolf (Canis lupus) population recolonizing an area with abundant resources and uncontrolled by humans. The model was modified to describe population growth in a limited environment using a discrete form of the logistic equation. The density dependent Leslie matrix model was applied to investigate gray wolf population recovery in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Estimates from the density dependent matrix model were compared with published winter count estimates from the Michigan Department of Natural Resources. The gray wolf population in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan was projected to reach a total of 929 wolves by the year 2012 with a 95% confidence interval...

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