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Quantitative understanding of groundwater and gas-rich fluid- and thermodynamics in volcanic areas is important for several reasons: 1) as a major source of hazard such as propellant in steam-driven explosions, lubricant in mudflows, and transport agent for toxic constituents such as arsenic and mercury that are dissolved from fresh volcanic rock, 2) groundwater pressure, temperature and chemical changes might signal one of the earliest warnings of volcanic unrest, 3) exploration and mining of geothermal energy and mineral deposits. Many of the geochemical, geodetic, and seismic signals measured at the ground surface as part of the volcano monitoring strategies have hydrothermal origins or magmatic origins modulated...
Our research focuses on developing methods to analyze volcano-hydrothermal systems and on the application of these methods to particular volcanic systems in the western United States. Specific research questions include (1) What are the modes of heat and mass transport from magma to the shallow subsurface? (2) What are the pressure, temperature, and fluid-saturation conditions between magma and the land surface? (3) What controls the permeability of volcanoes? How does it vary in space and time? What role do temporal variations in permeability play in the evolution of volcanogenic hydrothermal systems and episodes of volcanic unrest? (4) How well-coupled are various fluid flow, transport, and mechanical deformation...
ABSTRACT Deep within the earth there exist immense reservoirs of energy in the form of heat-commonly referred to as geothermal resources. Unfortunately, most of these resources are at such depths that it is unlikely they will be recoverable in the foreseeable future. Nevertheless, the lure of seemingly inexhaustible amounts of relatively clean energy continues to hold a fascination for man. In certain limited situations man has already been able to tap these reservoirs and harness the energy to his own uses. More of this activity can be expected in the future. While geothermal energy will chiefly be used to produce electric power, persons responsible for water resources management must concern themselves with geothermal...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: geothermal resources, water law
In the beginning of this new century, the rational use of energy becomes a keyword for the world sustainable development both in developed and developing countries. Geothermal resources have the potential of contributing significantly to sustainable energy use in many parts of the world. Geothermal energy has been used commercially for about one century and its large-scale utilization (hundreds of MW) started about 40 years ago, both for electricity generation and for direct application as space heating and combined with heat pumps. The technology, reliability, economics, and environmental acceptability of direct use of geothermal energy have been demonstrated throughout the world. The aim of the present article...
Reconnaissance and chemical and isotope sampling of thermal springs in the western United States has not generally provided information of sufficient detail to permit the geothermal potential of most individual areas to be determined with any certainty. This is especially true in the Cascade Mountain Range, where the chemical geothermometers indicate much lower temperatures of water-rock equilibrium than the sulfate-isotope geothermometer and the geologic setting seem to require. This discrepancy could be due to simple mixing of thermal and fresh water or rapid equilibration of water with the surrounding country rock as the fluids rise to the surface; alternatively, the sulfate-isotopic composition could be an artifact...