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Underwater observation of active submarine lava flows from Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, in March-June 1989 revealed both pillow lava and highly channelized lava streams flowing down a steep and unconsolidated lava delta. The channelized streams were 0.7-1.5 m across and moved at rates of 1-3 m/s. The estimated flux of a stream was 0.7 m3/s. Jets of hydrothermal water and gas bubbles were associated with the volcanic activity. The rapidly moving channelized lava streams represent a previously undescribed aspect of submarine volcanism. -Author
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geology
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The late Cenozoic volcanic and tectonic activity of the enigmatic West Antarctic rift system, the least understood of the great active continental rifts, has been suggested to be plume driven. In 1991-1992, as part of the CASERTZ (Corridor Aerogeophysics of the Southeast Ross Transect Zone) program, an ~25 000 km aeromagnetic survey over the ice-covered Byrd subglacial basin shows magnetic "texture' critical to interpretations of the underlying extended volcanic terrane. The aeromagnetic data reveal numerous semicircular anomalies ~100-1100 nT in amplitude, interpreted as having volcanic sources at the base of the ice sheet; they are concentrated along north-trending magnetic lineations interpreted as rift fabric....
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geology
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The largest fossil hydrothermal system occupying a 4500 km2 area in central Idaho is revealed by delta 18O studies. The remains of this meteoric-hydrothermal system are preserved within a sharply bounded, 15 km wide, 70-km-diameter annulus of low delta 18O rock (+2.0 to -8.8per mille) termed the Castro ring zone. The zone is centred on a less depleted (+4.5) core zone consisting of granitic rocks of the Castro pluton. This 700-km2 Eocene subvolcanic batholith has intruded, domed, and hydrothermally metamorphosed a thick sequence of Challis Volcanics, the stratigraphically low rocks in the 2000-km2 Van Horn Peak and the 1000-km2 Thunder Mountain cauldron complexes being most strongly altered. Less extreme 18O depletions...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geology
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A large (30-40 m), rapid (???1 m.y.), earliest Maastrichtian sealevel drop inferred from New Jersey sequence stratigraphic records correlates with synchronous ??18O increases in deep-water benthic and low-latitude surface-dwellin planktonic foraminifera. The coincidence of these events argues for the development of a moderate-sized ice sheet during the early Maastrichtian.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geology
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Wyoming is now at the eastern margin of westerlies originating in the Pacific, but in the Pleistocene appears to have received moisture from elsewhere, possibly the Gulf of Mexico. Oxygen isotope ratios of pedogenic carbonate in postglacial terraces correspond to ratios in equilibrium with present meteoric waters, which show a strong relation to precipitation seasonality and storm sources. In contrast, the oxygen isotope rations of all pre-Holocene soils are significantly more positive, even though the carbon isotope composition of coexisting organic matter suggests that the carbonate formed in temperatures cooler than today. The oxygen isotope rations of paleowaters in mid-North America appear to be more useful...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geology
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The primary karst-forming process at Lake Banyoles is dedolomitization of basement rocks driven by gypsum dissolution. Karstification takes place along the subsurface contact between the gypsiferous Beuda Formation and the dolomitic Perafita Formation. This process is here recognized for the first time to cause karstification on a large scale; this is significant because it proceeds without the addition of soil-generated carbonic acid. -from Authors
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geology
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New data from 17 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary sections and 53 vertebrate sites in the Hell Creek and Fort Union Formations in southwestern North Dakota document a 1.76 m barren interval between the highest Cretaceous vertebrate fossils and the palynologically recognized K-T boundary. The boundary is above the formational contact at 15 localities and coincident with it at two, demonstrating that the formational contact is diachronous. Dinosaurs are common in the highest Cretaceous vertebrate samples and a partial dinosaur skeleton in the Fort Union Formation is the highest recorded Cretaceous vertebrate fossil in this area.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geology
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The commonly observed exponential dependence of sandstone porosity upon depth follows as a special case from this power-function relation when temperature increases linearly with depth. The consideration of sandstone porosity in terms of time-temperature exposure offers advantages in the comparison of porosity data from diverse geologic settings. -from Authors
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geology
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We measured 10Be in fluvial sediment samples (n = 27) from eight Great Smoky Mountain drainages (1-330 km2). Results suggest spatially homogeneous sediment generation (on the 104-105 yr time scale and > 100 km2 spatial scale) at 73 ?? 11 t km-2 yr-1, equivalent to 27 ?? 4 m/m.y. of bedrock erosion. This rate is consistent with rates derived from fission-track, long-term sediment budget, and sediment yield data, all of which indicate that the Great Smoky Mountains and the southern Appalachians eroded during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic at ???30 m/m.y. In contrast, unroofing rates during the Paleozoic orogenic events that formed the Appalachian Mountains were higher (???102 m/m.y.). Erosion rates decreased after termination...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geology
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A reinterpretation of the origin of subsurface rocks in southwestern Virginia and southeastern Kentucky suggests that contrary to commonly accepted ideas, the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian Systematic boundary is an unconformity and the Lower Pennsylvanian quartz arenite sequences were deposited in a fluvial environment. Because Pennsylvanian strata of the Pocahontas and the Formations appear to have been deposited at the same time in adjacent valleys, the Pocahontas, which generally has been considered to be older and to underlie the Lee, is considered here to be equivalent to the basal part of the Middlesboro Member of the Lee Formation. -Author
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geology
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Geologic evidence developed from surface exposures demonstrates that the western frontal fault of the Canyon Range is a major structure representing the eastern Breakaway zone of the Sevier Desert detachment. Maximum upper plate displacement for the entire Sevier Desert detachment cannot be determined from these breakaway-zone exposures. -from Author
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geology
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Persistent low- to moderate-level eruptive activity of andesitic volcanoes is difficult to monitor because small changes in magma supply rates may cause abrupt transitions in eruptive style. As direct measurement of magma supply is not possible, robust techniques for indirect measurements must be developed. Here we demonstrate that crystal textures of ash particles from 1999 to 2006 Vulcanian and Strombolian eruptions of Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador, provide quantitative information about the dynamics of magma ascent and eruption that is difficult to obtain from other monitoring approaches. We show that the crystallinity of erupted ash particles is controlled by the magma supply rate (MSR); ash erupted during periods...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geology
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A new fossil fauna has been discovered from a recently recognized shale unit within the middle Ordovician St. Peter Formation in northeast Iowa. It contains a variety of invertebrates and vertebrates, including soft body tissues, impressions, and 3-dimensionalpreservations. The exceptional preservation reveals a new Konservat-Lagerstätte, the Winneshiek Lagerstätte, and opens a unique window into the community that inhabited the margins of the Laurentian cratonic seaway during Middle Ordovician transgression. Among the fossils, several conodont assemblages, including the apparatus of enigmatic coleodontids, are preserved. Some conodont assemblages associated with soft body tissues are particularly noteworthy.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geology
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Sediment cores as long as 20 m, dated by 14C, 210Pb, and 137Cs methods and pollen stratigraphy, provide a history of diatom productivity and sediment-accumulation rates in Chesapeake Bay. We calculated the flux of biogenic silica and total sediment for the past 1500 yr for two high-sedimentation-rate sites in the mesohaline section of the bay. The data show that biogenic silica flux to sediments, an index of diatom productivity in the bay, as well as its variability, were relatively low before European settlement of the Chesapeake Bay watershed. In the succeeding 300-400 yr, the flux of biogenic silica has increased by a factor of 4 to 5. Biogenic silica fluxes still appear to be increasing, despite recent nutrient-reduction...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geology
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Reconstructing the size and glacial style of past ice-sheet advances requires interpreting complex glacial sedimentary facies. We use diatoms, a major component of Antarctic continental shelf deposits, to infer the physical conditions under which these deposits were emplaced. The degree of diatom fragmentation and the presence of diatoms of varying stratigraphic age in glacial sediments provide means to qualitatively gauge glacial mixing and transport. Here we report an experimentally calibrated index of diatom fragmentation that provides a simple but objective method of assessing the degree of subshearing imparted on marine glacial sedimentary deposits. By using a ring-shear device to subject diatomaceous sediment...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geology
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The flux of glacially derived bedload and the proportions of the suspended and bedload components carried by proglacial streams are highly debated. Published data indicate a large range-from <30% to >75%-in the bedload percentage of the total load. Two "vents," where supercooled subglacial meltwater and sediment are discharged, were sampled over the course of an entire melt season in order to quantify the flux of glacially delivered bedload at the Matanuska Glacier, Alaska. The bedload component contributed by these vents, for the one melt season monitored, is negligible. Furthermore, the bedload fluxes appear to be strongly supply limited, as shown by the poorly correlated discharge, bedload-flux magnitude, and...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geology
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Brucite [Mg(OH)2] microbialites occur in vacated interseptal spaces of living scleractinian coral colonies (Acropora, Pocillopora, Porites) from subtidal and intertidal settings in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and subtidal Montastraea from the Florida Keys, United States. Brucite encrusts microbial filaments of endobionts (i.e., fungi, green algae, cyanobacteria) growing under organic biofilms; the brucite distribution is patchy both within interseptal spaces and within coralla. Although brucite is undersaturated in seawater, its precipitation was apparently induced in the corals by lowered pCO 2 and increased pH within microenvironments protected by microbial biofilms. The occurrence of brucite in shallow-marine...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geology
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Glacial freshwater discharge to the Atlantic Ocean during deglaciation may have inhibited oceanic thermohaline circulation, and is often postulated to have driven climatic fluctuations. Yet attributing meltwater-discharge events to particular climate oscillations is problematic, because the location, timing, and amount of meltwater discharge are often poorly constrained. We present evidence from the Hudson Valley and the northeastern U.S. continental margin that establishes the timing of the catastrophic draining of Glacial Lake Iroquois, which breached the moraine dam at the Narrows in New York City, eroded glacial lake sediments in the Hudson Valley, and deposited large sediment lobes on the New York and New Jersey...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geology
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A seismic refraction and low-fold reflection survey, known as the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE), was conducted along a transect (line 1) extending from Seal Beach, California, to the Mojave Desert, crossing the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Valley basins and San Gabriel Mountains. The chief result of this survey is an interpreted cross section that addresses a number of questions regarding the crustal structure and tectonics of southern California that have been debated for decades and have important implications for earthquake hazard assessment. The results (or constraints) are as follows. (1) The maximum depth of the Los Angeles basin along line 1 is 8-9 km. (2) The deep structure of the Sierra Madre...
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Geology


map background search result map search result map Estimating rates of decompression from textures of erupted ash particles produced by 1999-2006 eruptions of Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador Geology and mineral deposits of the Keweenaw Peninsula and vicinity, Michigan Estimating rates of decompression from textures of erupted ash particles produced by 1999-2006 eruptions of Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador Geology and mineral deposits of the Keweenaw Peninsula and vicinity, Michigan