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The generation of electricity modifies the physical environment of the globe more than any other industrial activity. Indeed, the industry may already create more long-term economic costs than benefits in terms of associated environmental repercussions. This negative economic equation could become even worse unless long-term and programmed investments into energy supply and conservation strategies are made with proper care for all indentifiable environmental effects. The present publiclyowned electricity industry in the UK has an environmental track record that is patchy but generally unsatisfactory, despite some improvements in recent years. The key issue facing the privatized industry is how comprehensive and...
This report, released by the Energy andBiodiversity Initiative (EBI), is the resultof a collaborative effort by representa-tives of the nine member companiesand conservation organizations of theInitiative. The views expressed hereindo not necessarily represent the viewsof every EBI member.EBI members recognize that there is a continuing public debate aroundbiodiversity conservation and oil andgas operations. Although EBI was notintended to resolve all the issues in-volved in this debate, we believe theEBI products and process will make a significant contribution to con-structive dialogue to accompany thatdebate. We welcome your commentsand feedback on this document or any other EBI products.
Afforestation of catchments reduces water yield. On hydroelectric power catchments, land uses can be compared in terms of energy production. On the Maentwrog catchment, Wales, forestry appeared highly energyefficient before inclusion of HEP losses, with ratios of energy input to energy output of 1:16-21. Inclusion of HEP losses reduced ratios to l :OS-3. A study of 41 sites on catchments in North Scotland showed that at the majorlty, afforestation would lead to net energy gain. However, in discounted cash flow terms, most potential afforestation sites were unprofitable when HEP losses were included. The balance of advantage depends crucially upon the criterion chosen and site conditions. Afforestation at high elevations...
This article presents an application of a risk assessment approach in characterising the risks associated with safety violations in underground bituminous mines in Pennsylvania using the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) citation database. The MSHA database on citations provides an opportunity to assess risks in mines through scrutiny of violations of mandatory safety standards. In this study, quantitative risk assessment is performed, which allows determination of the frequency of occurrence of safety violations (through associated citations) as well as the consequences of them in terms of penalty assessments. Focus is on establishing risk matrices on citation experiences of mines, which can give early...
Geothermal energy, carbon sequestration, and enhanced oil and gas recovery have a clear role in U.S. energy policy, both in securing cost-effective energy and reducing atmospheric CO2 accumulations. Recent publicity surrounding induced seismicity at several geothermal and oil and gas sites points out the need to develop improved standards and practices to avoid issues that may unduly inhibit or stop the above technologies from fulfilling their full potential. It is critical that policy makers and the general community be assured that EGS, CO2 sequestration, enhanced oil/gas recovery, and other technologies relying on fluid injections, will be designed to reduce induced seismicity to an acceptable level, and be developed...
Reliance on oil as an energy source for private transportation produces increasingly unfavorable social, political and environmental conditions including climate change, dependence on foreign oil, and the need for difficult choices between oil production and protection of biological systems. At the same time, the population is increasingly sedentary due largely to our reliance on the automobile for transportation. Adoption and maintenance of healthy weights and healthier lifestyles by substituting walking or biking for short trips currently taken by car could simultaneously improve health and reduce oil consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. We calculate the reduction in oil consumption and carbon dioxide emissions...
This article proposes eco-protective countermeasures that may serve as theoretical reference for post-mining eco-rehabilitation of the Xiangshui coal mining area, Guizhou, China. These countermeasures were developed from baseline survey and assessment data for the eco-environment including plant communities, soil types, physical and chemical properties, water and soil loss, status quo, etc.
Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, the United States and other countries are implementing, by themselves or in cooperation with one or more other nations, climate change mitigation projects. These projects will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or sequester carbon, and will also result in non-GHG benefits (i.e., environmental, economic, and social benefits). Monitoring, evaluating, reporting, and verifying (MERV) guidelines are needed for these projects to accurately determine their net GHG, and other, benefits. Implementation of MERV guidelines is also intended to: (1) increase the reliability of data for estimating GHG benefits;...
The effects of 120 days of high-intensity (80-kV/m) 60-Hz electric field exposure on hematologic constituents were investigated using a three-generation design including 135 field-exposed and 135 sham-exposed male Sprague-Dawley rats. Statistical tests performed included the multivariate analysis of variance, the univariate analysis of variance, and tests of simple effects. Total white cell count, lymphocyte count, and eosinophil count were significantly lower in field-exposed subjects; however, none of the red cell parameters differed significantly. The observed hematologic variations related to the exposure of a high-intensity electric field are consistent with those observed in animals responding to a mild stressor.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Clean, fossil fuels, generation, power
We propose a model for an exhausted upper continental crust. The Crepuscular Earth represents a degraded planet where all resources have been extracted and dispersed, and all fossil fuels have been burned. The starting point of the model of crepuscular crust is the composition given by the geochemist Grigor’ev, which is constrained by the conservation of mass statement between the chemical composition of the crust in terms of elements and in terms of minerals. Additionally, the model is given geological consistence, by introducing a series of assumptions based on geological observations. As a result, the obtained crepuscular crust is composed of the 294 most abundant minerals. Together with the model of exhausted...
Renewable energies are considered as an essential element of any strategy for sustainable energy development. The poor in the developing world without access to modern energies are regarded as a major market for renewable energies. Renewable energies are expected to play a major role in the global future energy provision. There has been interest in electricity from renewable sources named green electricity or green pool as a special market. The term green energy is also used for green energy produced from cogeneration, energy from municipal waste, natural gas, and even conventional energy sources. Green power refers to electricity supplied from more readily renewable energy sources than traditional electrical power...
This report, released by the Energy andBiodiversity Initiative (EBI), is the resultof a collaborative effort by representa-tives of the nine member companiesand conservation organizations of theInitiative. The views expressed hereindo not necessarily represent the viewsof every EBI member.EBI members recognize that there is a continuing public debate aroundbiodiversity conservation and oil andgas operations. Although EBI was notintended to resolve all the issues in-volved in this debate, we believe theEBI products and process will make a significant contribution to con-structive dialogue to accompany thatdebate. We welcome your commentsand feedback on this document or any other EBI products.
The effects of 120 days of high-intensity (80-kV/m) 60-Hz electric field exposure on hematologic constituents were investigated using a three-generation design including 135 field-exposed and 135 sham-exposed male Sprague-Dawley rats. Statistical tests performed included the multivariate analysis of variance, the univariate analysis of variance, and tests of simple effects. Total white cell count, lymphocyte count, and eosinophil count were significantly lower in field-exposed subjects; however, none of the red cell parameters differed significantly. The observed hematologic variations related to the exposure of a high-intensity electric field are consistent with those observed in animals responding to a mild stressor.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Clean, fossil fuels, generation, power
The effects of 120 days of high-intensity (80-kV/m) 60-Hz electric field exposure on hematologic constituents were investigated using a three-generation design including 135 field-exposed and 135 sham-exposed male Sprague-Dawley rats. Statistical tests performed included the multivariate analysis of variance, the univariate analysis of variance, and tests of simple effects. Total white cell count, lymphocyte count, and eosinophil count were significantly lower in field-exposed subjects; however, none of the red cell parameters differed significantly. The observed hematologic variations related to the exposure of a high-intensity electric field are consistent with those observed in animals responding to a mild stressor.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Clean, fossil fuels, generation, power
The Shale Gas Subcommittee of the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board is charged with identifying measures that can be taken to reduce the environmental impact and improve the safety of shale gas production. Natural gas is a cornerstone of the U.S. economy, providing a quarter of the country’s total energy. Owing to breakthroughs in technology, production from shale formations has gone from a negligible amount just a few years ago to being almost 30 percent of total U.S. natural gas production. This has brought lower prices, domestic jobs, and the prospect of enhanced national security due to the potential of substantial production growth. But the growth has also brought questions about whether both current and future...
Regional systems, increased competition, and environmental imperatives are forcing a reallocation of state and federal regulatory responsibilities for the US electric power sector. The great extent of regional diversity in the sector raises a policy relevant empirical question. Is this diversity due to choice or circumstance? This paper finds circumstance to be a more significant determinant of fundamental performance than choice, but also finds evidence that decisions at the margin reflect the diverse preferences of regional policies. This suggests a continued role for (more responsive) state level regulation in order to satisfy diverse preferences. Uncertainty about the optimal endpoint of restructuring reinforces...
In response to the increasing global demand for energy, on exploration and development are expanding into frontier areas of the Arctic, where slow-growing tundra vegetation and the underlying permafrost Soils are Very sensitive to disturbance. The creation of vehicle trails on the tundra from seismic exploration for on has accelerated in the past decade, and the cumulative impact represents a geographic footprint that covers a greater extent of Alaska's North Slope tundra than all other direct human impacts combined. Seismic exploration for on and gas was conducted on the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, USA, in the winters of 1984 and 1985. This study documents recovery Of vegetation...
The effects of 120 days of high-intensity (80-kV/m) 60-Hz electric field exposure on hematologic constituents were investigated using a three-generation design including 135 field-exposed and 135 sham-exposed male Sprague-Dawley rats. Statistical tests performed included the multivariate analysis of variance, the univariate analysis of variance, and tests of simple effects. Total white cell count, lymphocyte count, and eosinophil count were significantly lower in field-exposed subjects; however, none of the red cell parameters differed significantly. The observed hematologic variations related to the exposure of a high-intensity electric field are consistent with those observed in animals responding to a mild stressor.
Categories: Publication; Types: Citation; Tags: Clean, fossil fuels, generation, power
This paper revisits the recent developments in biofuel markets and their economic, social and environmental impacts. Several countries have introduced mandates and targets for biofuel expansion. Production, international trade and investment have increased sharply in the last few years. However, some analysts linked biofuels to the 2007–2008 global food crisis. Existing studies diverge on the magnitude of the projected long-term impacts of biofuels on food prices and supply, with studies that model only the agricultural sector showing higher impacts and studies that model the entire economy showing relatively lower impacts. In terms of climate change mitigation, biofuels reduces GHG emissions only if GHG emissions...
This report, released by the Energy andBiodiversity Initiative (EBI), is the resultof a collaborative effort by representa-tives of the nine member companiesand conservation organizations of theInitiative. The views expressed hereindo not necessarily represent the viewsof every EBI member.EBI members recognize that there is a continuing public debate aroundbiodiversity conservation and oil andgas operations. Although EBI was notintended to resolve all the issues in-volved in this debate, we believe theEBI products and process will make a significant contribution to con-structive dialogue to accompany thatdebate. We welcome your commentsand feedback on this document or any other EBI products.